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This could also be relevant for Ebola, which also is an RNA virus:

HIV vaccine

The body's initial "vaccine-reaction" against HIV could be prolonged if the viruses were inactivated. In comparison, the polioviruses can be inactivated by cleavage

This could also be relevant for Ebola, which also is an RNA virus: HIV vaccine The body's initial "vaccine-reaction" against HIV could be prolonged if the viruses were inactivated. In comparison, the polioviruses can be inactivated by cleavage

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Ottar commented on Virology

Thanks for your nice words. OpenIDEO is a great initiative. I added seven images. I think they suit the layout very well. Ottar.

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Ottar commented on Ebola-HIV-RNA viruses

Enzymatic cleavage of viral genomes: hydrolysis interchangeable with aminolysis in a kind of nitrogen fixation.

This could also be relevant for Ebola, which also is a single-stranded RNA virus:

HIV vaccine

The body's initial "vaccine-reaction" against HIV could be prolonged if the viruses were inactivated. In comparison, the poliovirus can be inactivated by cleavage of its RNA by ammonia. Hopefully, the same can be true for HIV. Both viruses contain single-stranded RNA and hydrolytic proteases. Perhaps the proteases perform (catalyse) aminolysis of the phosphodiester bonds in RNA, and so cut the strands. HIV has even RNase H which is specialized in breaking RNA strands. I guess there are proteins with nuclease activity also in the Ebola viruses, e.g. the nucleoprotein (NP). Maybe even coiled, viral RNA can work on itself as an aminolytic ribozyme. The phosphorus/phosphate (PO4-) in RNA repels water more than ammonia, and is thus favoring aminolysis over hydrolysis. (NH3 is a stronger nucleophile and a slightly lighter molecule than H2O).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC354068/?page=1

The tight encapsulation/packing of RNA in the viruses will promote the aminolysis process. It brings the 2' hydroxyl group close to the phosphorus, catalysing breakage of the phosphodiester bonds. There is high inward osmotic pressure in viruses. The hydrophobic cores in the ribonucleoproteins will attract ammonia.
(The Ebola viruses are extra prone to breakage during mechanical stress in vivo because of their long, rod-shaped forms).

And the host cells use RNases to hydrolyse foreign RNA. Maybe the RNases switch to aminolysis when ammonia is available, and thereby speed up this defense.

In this regard, inhalation of ammonia could be a way to destroy HIV and other RNA viruses in blood and tissue.

http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Organic_Chemistry_With_a_Biological_Emphasis/Chapter_10%3A_Phosphoryl_transfer_reactions/Section_10.4%3A_Phosphate_diesters

Written by:

Ottar Stensvold

Molde
Norway

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Ottar commented on Ebola-HIV-RNA viruses

Thanks for your reply!