Организация подлинно гражданского общества-важнейшая задача или точнее сущность каждого демократического правительства. Поэтому в постсоветских странах, избравших демократический путь развития, создать нынешнее сообщество очень сложно, поскольку в них нет демократических традиций и связанных с ними институтов. Для Республики Таджикистан сложность организации гражданского общества все еще усиливается присутствием и давлением в обществе так называемого “Восточного синдрома имплицитного подчинения власти”. Particularly it is brightly shows up in agrarian sector, where live more than 70% of the population.
Социологическое исследование развития сельского хозяйства, проведенное специалистами НАДФ и Насип-АНК как основной формы хозяйствования на селе, свидетельствует о серьезных проблемах в развитии аграрного предпринимательства, а также проведении реформ и демократических преобразований. Their substance is reduces to injuries rights and economical interests of farmers, interference in his financial- economical activities, lack of free access to land, financial-credit and material and technical resources and as logical negative result – sudden trust shortening of authority and pursued an agrarian policy and reforms.
. Therefore the existing uneasy social economical situation in agriculture demands the principle different authority relation and agrarian entrepreneurship and individual lobbyism has to give a way to wide collaboration of the government and civil society for national interest satisfaction.
The major requisite and foundation stone of civil society development in rural territories can be society consolidation on the base of farmers community and truly exponents of farming development has to be professional agro oriented (e.g. focus of activity of which is directed to agrarian sector) business-associations, local NGO’s, rural intellectuals, agrarian academic circles and research institutes, local Mass media.
Но ввиду разобщенности и раздробленности вышеперечисленных структур и фондов, а также неэффективного взаимодействия с местными органами власти, большой творческий потенциал крестьянского сообщества используется крайне неэффективно. В связи с этим в рамках текущей акции они намерены объединить свои усилия на базе создания пророссийской коалиции. Нынешняя коалиция должна быть простой, ясной и понятной сама по себе, а также Демократической, конструктивной, творческой и прогрессивной по содержанию. Поэтому “Союз фермеров " формируется без искусственного воспитания личности на демократических принципах добровольности, открытости, гласности и согласованности интересов участников.
НАДФ, Нам и Насип-АНК выступили в качестве инициаторов создания ПРО-фермерской коалиции “Союз фермеров”. Идею создания ПРО фермерской коалиции "Союз фермеров" поддержали более 40 республиканских, региональных и местных агро ориентированных НПО и частных структур.
Центральным элементом коалиции станет сеть АДФ разных уровней. Pro farming coalition будет открыта для взаимодействия и сотрудничества с местными и международными НПО, работающими в аграрном секторе Таджикистана и другими заинтересованными организациями и структурами, которые разделяют идеи фермерского сообщества и понимают необходимость объединения творческих сил общин для проведения конструктивного бизнес-диалога и работы органов власти на различных уровнях.
Pro farming coalition “Farmer Alliance” will not pursue the political objectives and its main mission will be improvement of business environment in agrarian sector by means of effective interactions with State government body and local authority, improvement of legislation and their strict observances, deepening of agrarian reforms and giving of permanent character to this process.
Дехканские хозяйства Рудакского района были отобраны в качестве объектов для реализации текущей идеи и Целевой группы акции. В настоящее время это наиболее развитая зона частного предпринимательства в селе, где количество фермеров составляет около 4 тыс. и уровень независимости фермеров достаточно высок.Общая цель и задача мероприятия-формирование основ самобытного гражданского общества путем повышения роли и значимости общественных институтов, выражающих консолидированную позицию граждан, направленную на повышение прибыльности и снижение уровня бедности населения.
The separate specific purposes of the project are:
Radical improvement of interaction between civil society and authority in the rural areas due to meaningful dialogue between NSA and LA, overcoming of administrative barriers and interventions of authority in economic activities, increase the potential of NSA and LA
Increasing the level of knowledge and overcoming of legal nihilism by means of conducting purposeful and consecutive information strategy of the Farmer Alliance providing quality and efficiency, especially legal, commercial and marketing information, improvement of a feedback, and also increasing of farmers’ legal literacy level.
Consolidation of NSA and LA efforts on increasing of profitableness DF and decreasing the rural poverty level in Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination on the basis of increasing of motivation and stimulus of escalating of manufacture of agricultural production, restoration of irrigational system, creation of rural credit and serving cooperative societies.
The above-mentioned specific purposes of the project represent itself as separate consecutive components of the project and appreciably coincide with priorities and requirements of management of ADB on the way of writing of the project.
Реализация данного проекта затрагивает интересы практически всего общества. Совершенствование механизма взаимодействия АНБ и Ла является формой цивилизованных взаимоотношений и взаимных обязательств в гражданском обществе.
Правильное использование данного механизма позволит лучше реализовать интересы граждан, и в первую очередь фермеров, во всех общественных институтах. С другой стороны, это позволит также большинству НКО в аграрной сфере улучшить свою деятельность и сделать ее более востребованной и значимой, достичь целевых задач.
Outputs and expected results (max 4 pages).
The project will strengthen the role and the importance of public institutes in rural areas; will create objective premise for consolidation of a civil society on a farmer platform, as the spokesman of civil interests in rural areas.
Design development and actions will strengthen organizational and institutional potential of local Associations DF and bodies of local authorities, especially at a level of jamoat and will allow to mobilize rural communities and to stimulate farmers on income enhancement.
Finally the Project will essentially improve the situation in target groups - individual and family DF of pilot jamoat of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination and final beneficiaries - agricultural population of area above mentioned that will be expressed in:
Increasing the income level of individual and family DF - target groups - DF of jamoat of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination area not less than 20 % and finishing of income on 1 hectares of an irrigation arable land not less than 350 Eur/hectares during the term of realization of the project.
Reduction of poverty level of agricultural population of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination area - the main beneficiaries to 5-6 %
Improvement of a standard of living of agricultural population due to rehabilitation of elements of a social infrastructure and first of all restoration of irrigational system and a water supply system in jamoat of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination.
Следует отметить, что уровень прогресса в сокращении бедности и повышении уровня доходов сельскохозяйственного населения в различных джамоатах и социальных группах района Рудаки не будет одинаковым. Улучшение ситуации в снижении уровня бедности и увеличении доходов наиболее ярко будет выражено в целевых группах - индивидуальных и семейных ДФ джамоата Хатлонской области и Рудакского, Файзабадского районов республиканского подчинения.
For example we are planning to reduce the poverty level in jamoat of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination not less than for 20 %, and increase the income level of individual and family DF as far as to 350 Eur on 1 hectare that will provide the income on 1 household at the rate of 600 Eur in a year.
In pilot jamoats of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination on a number with achievement of the basic target reference points will improve the technical and administrative capacity of DF and especially their officials due to:
Carrying out of purposeful work on protection of the rights and promotion of economic interests of farmers
Carrying out of interactive trainings with application of the situational analysis on сonсret problematic of DF development, including through the field farmer schools FFS;
Granting operative, full and trustworthy information about market prices on agricultural production and major factors of agricultural production.
Along with strengthening of technical and administrative potential of farmers, also will improve organizational and institutional potential of local and regional associations of DFH and local authority body.
Прогресс в их потенциале будет достигнут за счет формирования эффективного взаимодействия различных структурных частей проекта со структурами местных ассоциаций DFH и органами местного самоуправления. Данный прогресс будет обеспечиваться за счет таких конкретных институциональных и организационных факторов развития, как::
Essential strengthening of a role and the importance of the public institutes expressing the consolidated position of farmers and civil society in rural areas.
Формирование про-фермерской коалиции "фермерский союз" с разработкой четкой стратегической платформы и гибкого механизма взаимодействия с властью.
Overcoming of administrative barriers
Sharp restriction down to the full termination of intervention of authority in economic activities of farmers.
Conclusion МоU between the Farmer Alliance and Hukumats of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination area as guarantee of an effective interaction between NSA and LA.
Regular bilateral and multilateral meetings and consultations
Formation of debatable Club " Strategy of Success "
Creation of Fund of Rural Initiatives
Satisfaction of judicial claims of DF to regional tax bodies, administration of water management and ground committee under the incorrect taxation and the overestimated collection of a payment for water and the acres.
Increase of awareness and overcoming of legal nihilism by means of conducting purposeful and consecutive information strategy of the Farmer Alliance providing quality and efficiency,
20 trainings are lead and 400 farmers are trained, 7 brochures, methodical grants and recommendations in the general circulation 8,2 thousand copies are prepared and published
Rehabilitation of about 20 km of a drainage network in Rohati jamoat mainly due to efforts of local communities
The project of restoration of an irrigating network of Rohati jamoat is developed and the purposeful company on attraction of means for its realization is lead
Simultaneously during realization of the project it will be possible to reach both other qualitative social and non-material benefits which in general consist in the following:
Will raise a level of trust of farmers and agricultural population to a spent agrarian policy and reforms
Will create additional workplaces and will reduce outflow of a Labour abroad, especially youth
Will lay a strong basis of creation of effective system of a supply with information of farmers and agricultural population
Will evidently show benefit of cooperation in the field of agrarian crediting and service of farmers starting with village level.
Will revive enthusiasm and stimulus of the farmer to escalating manufacture of agrarian production and will raise its belief in spent agrarian reforms, including by means of effective interaction NSA and LA.
Will distribute a positive experience of jamoat increases of profitableness and reduction of poverty on other rural territories of Rudaki area, and the country as a whole.
During realization of the given project the following publications will be prepared and published:
The informational-analytical bulletin "Meaningful dialogue" in volume of 24 pages of format A-4 and 600 numbers of copies printed.
The Methodical grant “How to create rural serving and credit cooperative society and to organize its work” in volume of 80 pages of format A-4 and 2000 number of copies printed.
The Methodical grant " the Farmer right: a myth or a reality or how to protect the rights of farmers " in volume of 40 pages of format A-4 and in circulation 2000 copies
The Methodical grant " Strategic planning of development of rural territories " in volume of 40 pages of format A-4 and in circulation 2000 copies
Recommendations " Organization of fundraising for strategic partners and rural NGO " in volume of 28 pages of format A-4 and in circulation 600 copies printed
Recommendations on development system measures of income enhancement of DF in volume of 28 pages of format A-4 and circulation 1000 copies printedТочно так же мы видим про фермерскую коалицию с рабочим названием " фермерский Альянс” The basic direction of publications supposes spreading in all 12 jamoats of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination area of positive experience and histories of success of concrete DF in pilot Rohati jamoat and also other areas DRS, jamoat of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination areas. For example experience of creation of rural credit and consumer cooperative societies and organization of their works will be useful enough to application in whole country.
Also there will be interesting for many areas of the country a methodical material " Strategic planning of development of rural territories and the Farmer right: a myth or a reality or how to protect the rights of farmers
The proposed activities and their effectiveness
The project consists of 3 components which reflect the below-mentioned specific purposes of the project:
Component 1 supposes radical improvement of interaction between a civil society and authority in rural area due to meaningful dialogue between NSA and LA, overcoming of administrative barriers and interventions of authority in economic activities, increase of potential NSA and LA
Increasing of awareness and overcoming of legal nihilism by means of conducting purposeful and consecutive information strategy of the Farmer Alliance providing quality and efficiency, especially commercial and marketing information, improvement of feedback, and also increasing of legal literacy level of farmers, reflects an essence of the Component 2
And at last, the Component 3 is aimed at consolidation of efforts of NSA and LA on income enhancement of DF and reduction of rural poverty level in Rohati jamoat of Rudaki area on the basis of increasing of motivation and stimulus of escalating of manufacture of agricultural production, restoration of irrigational system, creation of rural credit and consumer cooperative societies.
In turn each Component has specific activity which provides achievements of the specific purposes, that in aggregate gives an opportunity to receive the general target result. Below it is resulted concrete actions on each of Components of the project.
Component 1 - Improvement of interaction between a civil society and authority in rural area
1.1. Meaningful dialogue between NSA and LA
Development of principles and mechanisms of interaction and parity partnership NSA and LA
Consolidation of a civil society on a farmer platform, as spokesman of civil interests in rural areas
Participation in joint development, discussion, acceptance, realization and monitoring of strategic documents of development of rural area
1.2. Overcoming of administrative barriers and interventions of authority in economic activities
Increase of NSA role in revealing administrative barriers and interventions
Preparation of recommendations on overcoming the administrative barriers and interventions
Protection of the rights of farmers in judicial claims on infringement of economic interests’ of DF during the incorrect taxation and the overestimated collection of a payment for water.
1.3. Increase of NSA and LA potential and prospects of their cooperation
Strengthening of role and the importance of the public institutes expressing the consolidated position of farmers and a civil society in rural area
Improvement of forms and methods of interaction between NSA and LA
Mechanisms of public control over realization of strategic documents as the factor of increase of trust to spent agrarian reforms
Formation of positive public opinion
Increasing of income and reduction of rural poverty - the main productive parameter of interaction and parity partnership NSA and LA
Component 2 - Increasing of awareness and overcoming of legal nihilism
Development of information strategy and introduction in practice of partnership of NSA and LA
Effective chains and mechanisms of notification system and operative distribution of information for agricultural population
Formation of system of feedback and the control over a course of performance of offers and wishes of agricultural population for realization by local authorities
Increase of legal literacy level of farmers and overcoming of legal nihilism
Component 3 - Consolidation of efforts NSA and LA on increasing of income of DF and reduction of rural poverty level of Rohati jamoat of Rudaki area
Joint development, discussion and acceptance of " Strategy of development of Rohati jamoat for 2009-2014 "
Definition of priority directions of development of Rohati jamoat and concentration of joint efforts NSA and LA on restoration of irrigating system of Rohati jamoat
Creation of rural credit and consumer cooperative societies in jamoat
Effectiveness of the action
Now we shall start more detailed description of actions both within the limits of separate component, and as a whole for the project with a possible estimation of their efficiency, including economic benefit (if probably to count). We shall begin with the description of the general actions. It is possible to carry to their number the below-mentioned:
1. Preparation and conducting of thematic and interactive trainings
Program of carrying out of trainings will be as much as possible approached to the decision of problems of the project and realized in the interactive form with application so-called case method training and the situational analysis. On trainings, following methods of group work will be used:
Discussion in groups
Role and business games
Participants of training are provided with the distributing material including educational modules and methodical grants, conditions and the decision of practical problems, the program of training, the brief review of presentation and on below-mentioned consecutive themes within the limits of separate a component of the project:
1. How to organize the constructive dialogue between the local authority and civil society – component 1.
2. Increasing the potential of NSA and LA – component 1
3. Management of conflict situations – component 1
4. Organization of informational services of rural areas – component 2
5. Legal aspects of land reforms – component 2
6. Forms and methods of right protection of DF- component 2
7. Strategic planning of development of rural territories – component 3
8. Rational use of water and land resources – component 3.
9. Organization of fundraising – component 3
10. How to organize the rural credit and consumer cooperatives – component 3.
As a whole carrying out of trainings on the planned subjects and in the interactive form will put in pawn a strong basis of understanding of interaction and parity cooperation NSA and LA and will create objective preconditions of their realization in specific conditions and in corresponding actions of the present project.
2. The organization and carrying out of sessions of Debatable Club «Strategy of Success
Preparation and carrying out of four thematic sessions of Debatable Club will be directed on the organization of discussions on impartial and objective discussion of the most topical problems of development of village and interaction of DF and rural NGO with local authorities.
As participants of sessions of recreation center leaders of DF and their Associations, having authority both own position and vision of problems of farmers development and farmer policy, representatives of local
authorities, and first of all, connected with functioning of DF – agricultural management, land and tax committee, heads of jamoats, local NGO, and also leading scientists and experts, representatives of mass-media will be invited.
Below it is resulted preliminary list of subjects of DC"Strategy of Success":
1. Formation of pro-farmer coalition “Farmer Alliance”: possibility and necessity
2. Freedom of farmers choice: myths and reality
3. New financial mechanisms: activation and perspectives
4. Constructive dialogue between NSA and LA: problems and perspectives
5. Legal status of DF and right protection forms of farmers
6. How to increase the trust of rural population to local authority
7. How to mobilize the potential of rural societies
8. Income enhancement of farmers: ways and forms
9. How to overcome the administrative barriers in rural areas
10. The ways of overcoming of interference of local authority to the farmer activity
11. How to obtain grants for local rural NGO’s and civil organization
12. Simplification of system of rural taxation and decreasing the tax burdens of DF
13. How to provide regular report of local authority to the population
Thus, the choice of a current theme will be defined by wishes of members of debatable club.
Carrying out of purposeful discussions on discussion of the sharpest and topical problems of farmers development and farmer policy from a position of a civil society in rural area will allow to liberate and involve huge levers of human potential and to direct this powerful energy to a creative channel.
The effect from it will not be revealed at once, but in process of their carrying out the awareness level and potential of the sanction will constantly increase and will certainly be shown in the positive form at realization of concrete problems that substantially will strengthen general efficiency of separate actions and the project as a whole.
3. Carrying out of sociological inspection on increase of potential NSA and LA and their effective interaction
At carrying out of sociological research, the below-mentioned methodology and tools of inspection will be used. For field researches will be chosen all 12 jamoat area. The total of respondents will be not less than 360 persons, approximately 30 on jamoat that will provide reliability of sample.
Respondents will mainly represent farms and Associations of DF, and also bodies of local authorities, local NGO, other persons concerning to rural development.
Simultaneously with field researches inspection focus of groups on which the basic problems and tendencies of development of farmer movement will be revealed, priority directions of development ADF at a local level, a way of improvement of interactions of civil society and authority in rural territory will be lead.
As a whole, the sequence and the tools of carrying out social researches will be similar to the following:
1. The basic toolkit for inspection of respondents is the questionnaire form. Questionnaires form will be developed for individual interviews in Russian, and conversations are spent in Tajik, Russian and Uzbek languages. Their adaptation will be carried out on training of interviewers in one of jamoats of Rudaki area with carrying out of control tests for correctness of filling of questionnaires a by cross method. With the purpose of improvement of identification of questionnaires form coding will be entered.
2. A substantiation of expediency of carrying out of focal group and definition of structure and quantity of participants, and also preparation of the questionnaire focused on carrying out of discussions on studying problems of development of farmers’ movement, protection of farmers’ interests and revealing of reserves of increase of organizational potential of DF and local authorities.
3. Input of the information by results of field inspections and creation of a database will be carried out at once after their fillings on jamoats according to sliding schedule.
4. The analysis of data will be carried out with application of statistical package SPSS and MS Excel.
5. Preparation of the analytical report on results of sociological inspection becomes the final stage.
Sociological inspection will provide an opportunity more precisely to reveal public opinion on most acute problems of civil society development and interaction with local authorities by means of impartial individual interrogation, and also special focus groups. It will allow to find out characteristic and specific problems and to plan the precise program of their overcoming at realization of concrete actions.
4. Preparation and publication of informational
Preparation and publication of informational -analytical materials as it has been noted above during realization of the project will be prepared and published not less than 7 publications in total amount of 8 thousand copies.
Efficiency of the given action is very great from the point of view of spreading results of the project and attraction of even greater adherents of idea of harmonious development of rural areas by means of effective cooperation of civil structures and local authorities, which the main vector of an orientation will be focused on income enhancement of farmers and reduction of poverty of agricultural population.
Within the limits of components 1 below- there will be executed the mentioned actions:
1. Formation of a pro-farmer coalition «Farmer Alliance»
The developed disturbing economic situation in the agriculture demands essentially other attitudes of authority and business and individual lobbyism should hand over the place to wide cooperation of the state and business for satisfaction of national interests.
It will demand radical improvement of business-environment, profound transformation of the legislation and standard -legal base and acceleration of end of agrarian reforms on the basis of democratic principles by means of meaningful dialogue adjustment of agrarian business and authority, restoration of trust of farmers to spent the agrarian policy.
Overcoming attempts of these problems by means of efforts of NADF as spokesman of farmer interests and conductor of their politicians were not so effective. For the decision of these challenges frequently having national character, we follow to involve potential of all civil society.
The given coalition should be simple in form, clear and understandable as a matter of fact, and on the substantial orientation - democratic, constructive, creative and progressive. Therefore «the Farmer Alliance " is formed without formation of the legal person on democratic principles of voluntaries, an openness, publicity and consistency of interests of participants.
Efficiency of formation of " Farmer Alliance" as a strategic platform of local rural and agrarian oriented NGO will be shown in mobilization of internal reserves of rural communities and their orientation on the decision of socially-significant works and effective investment project in village, to increase the role and the importance of civil sector in mutual relation with authority.
The main result and prime action of the Alliance should be attributing of precise position of civil structures in interaction with authority which it is planned to fix legally in the concluded Memorandum of mutual understanding of Farmer Alliance and Hukumat of Rudaki area.
In current MoU principles of interaction and parity cooperation of civil sector and authority on the nearest foreseeable prospect will be reflected, and also precisely formulated and unequivocally treated theses about overcoming of administrative barriers and the termination of intervention of authority in economic activities that will certainly raise trust of the population to authority and spent agrarian policy.
2. Overcoming of administrative barriers, restriction and the termination of intervention of bodies of local authorities in economic activities.
Overcoming of administrative barriers, sharp restriction and down to the full termination of intervention of local authorities’ bodies in economic activities is one of key and basic actions of the project. The destiny of the project depends on success or failure of the given component in many respects, therefore NADF and its partner will put a maximum of efforts on successful realization of current measures.
Efficiency of the given action represents not only a qualitative component of the project, but also there is a quantitative opportunity of an estimation of economic benefit through concrete parameters of the termination of overpayments of taxes and unreasonable payments of taxes and payments for water.
Referenced economic effect of realization of the given action will be made nearby with 80 thousand Euro. Certainly, local authorities’ bodies will not agree at once to refuse traditional practice of withdrawal of excessive payments in the budget and overpayments for water, therefore within the limits of the given action initiation of judicial claims on the concrete facts of unreasonable overpayments for individual and family DF in jamoats of Khatlon oblast and Rudaki, Fayzabad areas of Republican subordination area are provided.
In the second component the further conducting active and consecutive information support by means of carrying out of discussions, a hot line and a telephone hotline, information boards and boxes with complaints and offers of the population is supposed.
Realization of the modern information technologies, directed on increases of access of farmers to the information, growth of a level of their knowledge and formation of the adequate information environment, will create favorable conditions for strengthening of potential NSA and LA and increases of income level and reduction of poverty of agricultural population.
Below the detailed description of actions of components 2 is resulted:
2.1. Development of joint information strategy of Rudaki area Hukumat and pro-farmer coalition "Farmer Alliance".
Development of joint information strategy becomes first and most significant joint action NSA and LA which will put in pawn the spirit of cooperation and the general orientation on the decision of uniform problems
of a civil society and authority. Efficiency and the importance of the given action is difficult to revalue, as the consolidated efforts of partners will give concrete results when it is necessary to defend joint priorities and the uniform purposes during discussion of the project.
Information strategy and joint realization subject to partnership NSA and LA an opportunity of public monitoring can become a corner stone and best practice of mutual cooperation becomes transparent platform for the open dialogue.
2.2. Formation of an effective feedback.
Formation of an effective feedback is one of the main conditions of functioning of information system which will be generated by means of a hot line and a telephone hotline, an information board and boxes for complaints and offers to authorities.
Creation of a hot line and telephone hotline will enable citizens directly to communicate with local authorities, and workers of the project to fix requests and wishes of citizens and to achieve, that ranking officers and heads of bodies of local authorities in due time and as a matter of fact answered inquiries of citizens.
For greater information value in each jamoat will be organized an information board (board) where news about plans and activity of local authorities and actions of the Farmer Alliance including within the limits of the project will be updated on a regular basis. Boxes for complaints and offers will be hung out at least on 2 in each jamoat and one time in three days to gather and be processed by joint commission of local authorities and Farmer Alliance.
These simple elements of information technologies will essentially raise transparency in work of local authority’s bodies and will strengthen trust to it and to a civil society.
Components 3 will be carried to the basic actions the following:
3.1. Joint development and wide discussion of Strategy of development NSA and LA of Rohati jamoat for 2009-20014
Development and acceptance of development strategy of Rohati jamoat of Rudaki area assumes a greater spadework in which the basis there will be an analytical activity of professional experts. Basic principles and conceptual positions of jamoat development will be developed by preliminary expert group NASIP-APK.
The primary project of Strategy will be prepared and adapted during realization of the project and carrying out of training on strategic planning development of jamoat, and also are specified during carrying out of trainings, discussions, sociological inspection.
Uniqueness of the given action will consist that the project of Strategy of jamoat development will be prepared in common NSA and LA and is born for wide democratic discussion where the leading part will be allocated to civil sector.
This action will allow pulling together the team of local authorities and civil sector on professional condition and within the limits of preparation of the concrete joint program that becomes certainly effective in realization of the project as a whole.
3.2. Establishment of rural service cooperatives
Weakness of material and technical base does not allow the farmers to carry out the profitable commodity exchange economy and suggest an idea to effort integration in the base of cooperation.
Rural Credit Cooperatives on the base of farming, as an industrial and economic unit significantly differs from Associations of Dekhan Farms, mostly plays the role of social structure, providing the interests protection of farmers. Creation of cooperatives will be implemented on the base of democratic principles as voluntaries, openness, transparence, general involvement, regular accountability.
By establishment of agricultural cooperatives in pilot jamoats of the project areas there will be used the experience of the foreign countries, first of all the countries of Baltic States, Russia and Kyrgyzstan. Visit to Latvia from July 1 to 7, 2008 organized by NADF tour phase financed by UNDP, allows learning experience of agricultural service cooperation and other development aspects of Latish farmers.
In whole the effect of cooperative allows to improve the extra incomes of farmers during the project implementation.
3.3. Rehabilitation of irrigating system of Rohati jamoat
Restoration of irrigational system in jamoat of Rohati becomes one of key and completing actions of the project. The essence of current action of frameworks of the project will be shown to three interconnected and logically coordinated actions.
First to joint development of the Rehabilitation project of irrigation systems in the extent of about 20 km with restoration of pump stations and drainage,
Secondly the organization of fundraising and attraction of investment means for realization of the developed project with active involving of all the jamoat population in the given process through Fund of Rural initiatives and purposeful activity created rural credit and consumer cooperative societies.
Thirdly, ingenious renewal of irrigation network, including with participation of the population in clearing drainage system by a traditional method "hashar" the realization of the given action will allow to irrigate direct restoration of an irrigating network nearby 3 thousand in hectares of the fertile lands, that will provide the additional income for agricultural population at a rate of more 1,5 million Eur. The contribution of directly project in realization of the current project and maintenance of efficiency even on the most modest of 10 % participation will be made nearby with 150 thousand Euro.
In general the whole economical effectiveness of action realization, which might be evaluated qualitatively, make up 230 thousand Euro, that corresponds to receipt 2, 30 Euro on each contributed Euro from the action.
Tajikistan - the agrarian country. The Agriculture was and remains a dominating part of national economy. The last decade was characterized by continuation of transformation of the agriculture connected with realization of agrarian reforms and transformation of the property.
Total nationalization of economy has been overcome. In agrarian sector practically multi structural economy is created. New organizational forms were got with an overwhelming part of the agricultural and processing enterprises.
In spite of all positive changes with property reforms and large-scale privatization of State enterprises, formation of effective owner did not appear in agrarian sphere. Creation of large interlaying of medium class as the main link of market reform and democratic reforms did not appear as well.
There are many objective premises and system reasons the lack of strong medium class. The main content of them to opinion is that, democratization of society, especially in the village as the base of conducting market reforms practically have not been provided.
In the countries with transition economy the democratic reforms stood as engine of market reforms and significant effect there has been achieved.
In Tajikistan inversely the market reforms, that are fell in lockup becomes the main stimulus of public democratization especially in agrarian sphere.
In other words, to promote market reforms we need to provide as a minimum the realization of fundamental democratic principles in the village, such as:
Electiveness of management bodies including the local self-government
Effective interaction and social partnership between civil society and local authority
Accountability of authority to society.
Only the real possibility of realization of these principles, not their avowal can provide the progressive and purposeful development of marketing reforms, increasing the confidence level to authority and formation of an effective owner.
In its turn it can provide the favorable condition in transformation of civil mentality, including rural population – the most conservative part of the society, adds to reforms final and nonreversible character.
The current methodology of project realization is directed to this strategically direction.
Positive result from realization of the project can be essential activization of NGO of agrarian sphere both their consolidation and representation of interests of rural citizens by them and businessmen in social partnership.
From realization of the project it will be possible to carry to number of indirect positive effects and increase of the reporting of local authorities to the population and civil sector.
The end result can become the real contribution of public institutes to creation and hardening of bases of a civil society on village and giving to process of democratic reforms of forward and irrevocable character. The key project implementation principles are as follows:
Voluntary - voluntary participation in development and implementation of intended project activities; Transparency – discussion, adoption and implementation of decisions as well as achievements and challenges will be published in local mass media, discussed at meetings with the population; Integration – the project admits, encourages and supports activities that might finally enhance rural income; Wide participation of the population in the action – In its implementation the project will use knowledge, experiences and attitudes of the population with regards to most effective ways of providing employment and income based on peculiarities of economic and social behavior of various rural groups and in particular target group;
Achieving targeted objectives through mobilization of internal resources, increase in social and economic activity of rural population which is crucial in creating sustainable mechanisms providing employment and income.
Awareness – means transparency along with informing aimed at increasing awareness of DFs with regards to the project activities.
Gender promotion and active participation involvement of women As a whole the methodology of carrying out of all our trainings assumes application of below-mentioned main principles:
Availability: trainings do not demand from participants of special knowledge and skills.
Team work: all participants work in team of about 10-12 and mini groups - 5-6 persons.
Activity: on trainings the special exercises which are making active group processes are used.
Support: the skilled trainers will work with each team who promote development of group dynamics.
Precise rules: all trainings have precise rules.
Participants are provided with the distributing material including educational modules and methodical grants, conditions and the decision of practical problems, the program of training, the brief review of presentation, etc.
Format developed by the Independent Agency for Strategic Researches and Planning in Agriculture and adapted to the needs of the ADF will serve as basic training module.
Conducting of Survey based on worked-out, methodology and instrument of individual interview implementation and examined focus group, including women, youth, poor household with application of statistic methods of processing and package of SPSS programs.
Methodology of conducting of Discussion Club sessions supposes the procurement of frank dialogue between the civil society, exponent of interests of which will be Farmer Alliance and Hukumat of Rudaki district, as well as open debate on the most actual and topical development problems of farming and formation of civil society in the village.
As indicators of successful realization of the project for an evaluation of results it is possible to use responses of public structures and local authorities about the offered mechanism of interaction and social partnership and the publication in mass-media of opinion of citizens and farmers about realization of their opportunities to participate in the decisions influencing for their life.
Further development of DF should be based on the intensive factors predetermining of production efficiency in new market structures. Thus development of DF occurs spontaneously and spontaneous character reflects internal essence of an evolutionary component of process.
Therefore, the development and introduction of the scientifically-substantiated system of conducting farms does not suffer delays for the evolutionary way of development of DF based on a trial and error method, at weak orientation to achievements of an agrarian science and high technologies can be tightened on ten and more than years, having rejected the country far from a strategic main direction of development.
The issue of unlawful interference of local authority in the Dekhan Farmers’ activities is one of the most daunting problems between the local authority and local farmers, which bring to right infringe of the framers.
The farmers are not able independently to make a decision about what kind of culture to cultivate, that can bring significant benefits, but the local authority does not consider necessary to take into account their wishes and traditionally imposes its points of view. Dekhan farmers as a rule are found under the local authority’s full control.
Rating authority workers abuse the illiteracy of dekhan farmers and recovers unprovided by legislation taxes, that are brought to discredit of farmers with respect to local authorities.
There is no accessible, juridical protection of Dekhan Farmers’ interests, as well as absence of mechanism of alternative consideration of arguments of Dekhan Farmers by independent party (for instance intermediate court). Mass media feebly informs the community about the land reform process. The local authority is functioning non-transparent and unfair during the land allotment.
A dekhan farm is an enterprise involved in the production and sale of agricultural products. Dekhan farmers operate as individual entrepreneurs according to the State Registration Certificate.
Dekhan farms are the most dynamically growing typology of business, both in terms of number of businesses and employment levels. From 2002 to 2007, dekhan farmers saw an annual growth rate of about 19% in both number of entities and employment.
According to official statistics, the highest concentration of dekhan farmers is in Districts of Rebublican Subordination. This can be explained by the fact that this districts are the major regions of agricultural production of the country.
Difficulty of registering a dekhan farm
As a survey shows, registration of dekhan farms still remains problematic: 43% of dekhan farmers think that the procedure is either complicated or very complicated. The difficulty of the registration procedure can be explained by ambiguous legislation and non-transparent and time consuming process, including the paperwork to be filled at different bodies.
The legislation does not regulate the time frames for every stage of the registration process for dekhan farmers. Time limits are set only for the Head of the Rayon to grant the land (within one month) and for registering at the Social Security Fund (within 10 days after submission of the application).
The average cost of registering a dekhan farm is more than 269 somoni, including official and unofficial payments.
Low level of application
Dekhan farmers, due to the nature of their business and the size of the companies, also requires external funding quite frequently. However, only a relatively small fraction of them decides to apply for a loan.
Approval rates have dramatically improved with respect to previous years, to a large extent thanks to the presence of Micro Finance Organizations (MFO’s). Indeed, the approval rates between loans provided to dekhan farmers by banks and MFO’s show a remarkable difference.
To the question “Did you get the loan from a bank?” 46% answered “yes” and 54% answered “no”.
To the question “Did you get the loan from MFO’s?” 80% answered “yes” and 20% answered “no”.
Commercial banks generally provide dehkans with long-term loans that are larger in size, but MFO’s have a much higher approval rate. This phenomenon most likely reflects self-selection on the part of the applicants: larger loans are requested from banks, while smaller loans are applied to MFO’s (which lend less, but often require no collateral).
Taxation of dekhan farmers
In 2005 the new Tax Code introduced a uniform tax for agricultural procedures which includes all tax payments. The uniform tax is a lump-sum tax based on the plot size and type of crop which does not depend on profitability of agricultural procedures’ activities. As such, it simplifies tax calculations, as well as the collection process.
The introduction of the unified tax for agricultural procedures anticipated simpler accounting procedures and a higher tax burden for dekhan farmers. In fact, more than 55% of surveyed dekhan farmers have noted a positive change from its introduction. Nevertheless, a significant amount of respondents was not satisfied by the new system, noting the necessity to pay taxes independent of generated income, without the possibility to prove the “worst case scenarios.”
Lump-sum taxation is beneficial to dekhan farmers, given their low tax literacy. Nevertheless, in case of poor productivity, dekhan farmers are not exempt fro tax obligations. As taxation is independent from productivity, it would be advisable to create a mechanism under which dekhan farmers would be able to o prove low income).
In addition, it should be noted that the unified tax for agricultural procedures is applied only to their activity that relates to agricultural production: this system is problematic, as it does not stimulate development of agricultural products processing, especially in the case of limited size farms. If a dekhan farmer processes his own production, he must pay all taxes in accordance with the standard tax system, rather than the unified tax system.
Methods to be used
In the project implementation national mentality and regional peculiarities will be addressed through a wide variety of traditional training methods complemented with modern informative technologies which will be used in complex with situation learning and quality consultation of experts.
The project might be considered as a next step following up our partners’ previous research and implementation of findings.
The project builds on the results achieved under the projects financially supported by World Bank, UNDP and CIDA and implemented by the ADF and its partners, as well as on experience gained through other EC programmes (ECHO, FSP) for the poor in the context of the Commission’s policy of “Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development” (LRRD).
Procedures of internal and external evaluation are based on standards of consulting structures evaluation.
In particular, the project directly targets the capacity of both civil society and the public sector to achieve rural agrarian reform. A participatory monitoring system will be developed and practiced on a pilot basis engaging field team and project participants in collection, analysis and use the same to review process and extension strategies on a regular basis and take decisions accordingly. Moreover, periodical monitoring will capture key outcome level performance indicators to reflect progress in utilization of new agriculture production techniques, rights utilization and yield.
Roles and participation of various actors and stakeholders in the action
The key idea of the project is that farmers will be main stakeholders and at the same time key beneficiaries. Their direct involvement into the implementation process and monitoring as well as use of internal development resources will help to achieve set objectives and rather high outcomes. Definitely farmers will need support and assistance to stimulate their initiative and enthusiasm and discover new areas for their capacities application. As such elements which stimulate enthusiasm and creative initiative of farmers and at the same time strengthen their belief to the government and its organizational and institutional capacity could serve competition, business-incubator, demo plots, seed multiplication ideas. No less important are the structures like farmers statistical and informative centers, business consulting centers and information centers that facilitate advocacy and lobby economic interests of farmers.
Women’s role and participation
The ADF will ensure gender balance while selecting the priority for communities, ensuring that women’s and youth’s voices are equally heard and their needs are responded to. The informative aspect of the project will include the mechanism of addressed and prioritized extension of the information for women. He developed activities and recommendations will consider women’s mentality and its specifics in rural areas. Distribution criteria for trainings on rights, management, business planning, marketing and practice exchange will consider gender balance to guarantee more chances for women to participate in them. At the agriculture service market including access to financial resources provided by ADFs directly or with their participation gender balance criteria will also be considered to guarantee access to resources for farms headed by women.
Organizational structure and team proposed for implementation of the project by functions
Qualification criteria for the staff selection were as follows:
- expertise and working experience in projects;
- ability and willingness to work in team
- innovative spirit and striving to the final result
- knowledge of market mechanism and incentives
The National Association of Dehkan Farmers actively collaborates with sectorial ministries and agencies, governmental bodies and local authorities within the frames of bilateral agreements. Close working relations with the Ministry of Agriculture define the most important aspects of mutual collaboration in the area of agriculture aimed at reforming and supporting the farmer movement. Effective collaboration of NADF with scientists and experts from the Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Tajik State National University, Tajik Agrarian University, Tajik Technologic University and other educating institutions in the country stimulates scientifically based farming.