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Not just a toilet, an ecosystem to address sanitation issues!

Working with Government & community institution to design & implement sustainable demand driven interventions.

Photo of Kapil

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State of Sanitation in India

Even though the Government of India has been promoting construction of toilets by providing subsidy since decades, the nation is home to more than 597 million people belonging to more than 37 million households (as per WHO-UNICEF report 2014) who defecate out in the open either because they do not have a toilet at home or because they are used to defecating out in the open since decades. Though data is unavailable, many visits to these households and discussions with community also led to the observation that most of these households also lack bathrooms, thereby forcing people to use public sources of water like ponds, rivers etc. for taking bath, washing clothes etc. The negative impact of inadequate sanitary and hygienic practices on health, nutrition, economy and safety, especially on women and adolescent girls, are well known.

Many studies highlight various reasons for non-construction, poor maintenance and low usage of toilets in rural areas. Few of these are delay in sanction process and payment of bills by concerned authorities, non-selection of eligible beneficiaries, lack of running water supply, age-old practice of open defecation without knowledge of impact on quality of life etc.

Women led Community Institution

The SHG movement is growing stronger in India with Government of India supporting the National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) with various benefits and entitlements. This provides an opportunity to organize rural masses, especially the women, to lay grounds for strong social movement by involving the community. Our organization, Paul (pronounced as pā'ūla or paaoola), began with the process of making rural development intervention more participatory, people centric and demand driven by organizing rural women to form strong community institutions and empowering them through its interventions for WASH. Paul has been aiming to “Work on developing synergy among Governmental, Non- Governmental agencies and Community to design & implement sustainable demand driven intervention”.

Paul’s Approach

Paul will help promote behavioral changes that can in turn increase adherence to best practices in the family and within the community, and create demand for better uptake of government services for sanitation. Paul will encourage and strengthen federations of SHGs of rural women  to enable them to channelize their collective strength to access information, services and entitlements and build social capital to adopt improved sanitation and hygiene practices and achieve sustainable Open Defecation Free (ODF) status for the Gram Panchayats (GP).

Paul’s Community Intervention Model

Paul will capacitate the Federation to mobilize the entire community by using strategic behaviour change communications to resolute against Open Defecation, take up bulk procurement of materials and construction of new toilets cum bathroom in the entire village and converge with government for constructing community based and community managed water supply. This will also cover toilets which need repair & toilets which got sanctioned in earlier schemes but were not completed. The district administration will be providing advance funds partially to the account of Federation for supporting the construction of toilets. The Federation will establish a WASH committee comprising of atleast 5-7 members from different sections of the community who will handle the funds for procurement and payment. The committee will manage books of account which is open for public scrutiny to ensure transparency. The Federation will also form three sub-committees namely the mobilization/vigilance committee, the Procurement committee and the construction committee comprising of 5-7 community members. These committees will include active individuals like Gram Panchayat and ward leaders, presidents of SHGs and Federation, Anganwadi worker, ASHA worker etc. The Procurement committee will be provided with various technological options to choose from and bring down cost of raw material by bulk procurement. Community based Vigilance Committee will monitor the progress of construction and create peer pressure to ensure usage. The construction committee will review the work of masons and follow up with households for timely construction of quality toilets. The sub-committees will report to the WASH committee and timely update about the progress of entire project in their area. The capacity building of each of these committee and sub-committees will be done by Paul to achieve the said objectives. Paul also aims to work with community and district administration post achieving ODF status to ensure water supply for sustainable sanitation

Paul will design its Behaviour Change and Communication (BCC) strategy based on local situation by adopting locally accepted methods and adding innovation to those. Awareness will be spread using interpersonal and intrapersonal methods like traditional folk art, modern modes of communication, weekly discussion in SHGs etc. Paul also believes that children can act as a strong agent of change; hence, Paul will pilot WASH interventions in schools as a part of its BCC strategy. The children will be engaged in different joyful activities and games centered on WASH themes to make them aware of healthy WASH habits and ensure the uptake of the same. These children will then act as a catalyst in promoting safe WASH practices in their households and the community. The learning from the pilot will then be used for advocacy and fund raising to up scale the WASH in Schools model.

Also, in pilot schools, Paul will approach and orient the teachers on importance of WASH in Schools. Specific activities which involve children in joyful manner will be used to sensitize children and raise awareness. We will also encourage the schools to select 2-3 active children per class to form a “Child Cabinet” and mentor these children as “Sanitation captains” so that they monitor that their batch mates are using toilets and washing hands before and after eating Mid Day Meal and promote peer-to-peer learning of good practices. A list of tentative activities we plan to carry out in schools are as following:

  • Daily pledge/ jingle on WASH for daily morning school assembly in local language
  • Different 4-5 simple WASH theme group games which can be played daily in school
  • Video shows maybe once/ twice a month
  • Formation and orientation of Child Cabinet
  • Rally, soap drives, demonstration, play in community
  • WASH survey by school children
  • Competition among schools who show better performance on WASH
  • Flexes/ paintings on walls near toilets and hand washing stations will require budget.
  • Establishing incinerators in schools having adolescent girls and proving MHM sessions
  • Inviting parents once a month to discuss on WASH issues and raise awareness

In case the school does not have toilets, we will try to with district administration and CSR partners to ensure sanitation facility in schools.

How would you describe the stage of development of your idea?

  • Scaling phase

How big or scalable is the potential of your idea?

Currently, Paul is working in Chigudikhol GP (840 households) of Beguniapada Block, Ganjam district, Odisha, and is ready to scale up in 2other GPs in same district. Paul is also in process of starting the intervention in Uttar Pradesh too with the support of a CSR partner. Paul’s role is more in terms of a facilitator and not as a direct service provider; the model inherently seeks to leverage existing resources and build the strength of the community for enhanced outcomes. Paul is strategically focusing on building women led WASH institution and converge with government to ensure that the community access their entitlements. As per NABARD, there are more than 7.6 million SHGs in India and potential to covering more than 400 million people (, mostly marginalised backward women. Given that other government schemes like NRLM, women led SHG federations are there in entire India, the idea is scalable in any district or state of India.

Explain the sustainability aspect of your idea

Working on WASH will result in sustainable behavior changes which will directly lead to better health and nutrition outcomes and increased livelihoods opportunities as demand for sanitary hardware will increase. It will also lead to empowerment of rural community as Paul’s approach is based on principle of community participation. By design it is a self-sustaining model that focuses on community initiative predominantly to promote a behavior change model and ensures accountability. We believe in pumping maximum investment (toilet construction cost) in the local economy and more than 70% of the total cost is going back into local economy. For the same, we are training local masons, brick & ring manufacturer etc.
The model has been carefully designed considering service fees/operational cost to make it scalable and sustainable. The model shall meet its operational cost in multiple ways like funds from district administration, building cost effective sanitary product supply chain, community contribution from members and CSR/foundation funding. The scale of intervention is critical for sustainability and Paul aims to achieve operational sustainability in next six months.

What types of financing would be required for your idea to be successful?

Paul is working with community as well as with the line department and both are contributing in terms of finances. To increase a sense of ownership, the community is encouraged to come together and discuss a minimal amount of contribution, Rs. 500 or more, each household has to make for their toilet. Currently, each household is contributing Rs. 500 to 1000 and labor for digging pits & basement of toilets. The remaining amount for construction of toilet cum bathroom is being provided by the Sanitation cell of Ganjam district, partially in advance, partially after construction and partially after usage. It is to be noted that these toilet cum bathrooms are built within the cost of Rs. 12000 thereby opening an opportunity to utilize the subsidy given by government for constructing sanitary toilets. As the model will be expanding to other GPs, Paul is tapping resources from CSRs to bring advance technology to the villages. Also, as Paul has a two- pronged strategy of focusing on provision of sanitary facilities and behavior change, funds from district administration and CSRs will also be used for BCC and WASH in School activities.

If you are proposing to partner with other organizations, please explain their role and reason for partnership.

Paul's model is to strategically involve the Sanitation cell of District Administration, the federation of SHGs, non-governmental agencies & CSRs to ensure that the community has access to hardware and software components of WASH. Thus, together they can contribute in construction of toilet cum bathroom and provision of water supply. Also, to increase livelihoods by increasing demands for sanitary goods, Paul envisions to partner with organizations in future to provide trainings to masons for construction of toilets and trainings to SHGs or youth groups for construction of goods like cement bricks and cement rings. The Non- Governmental agencies can also contribute in training and supporting active community members to create awareness around sanitation and hygiene and put peer pressure to change the norms of the society by using innovative BCC approaches.

In-country experience

  • Yes, for two or more years

If you have been operating in India, what has been your focus?

Paul is currently working in one GP of Odisha and in the phase of starting in 2 more GPs of Odisha and 1 GP of Uttar Pradesh for constructing toilet cum bathroom and ensuring its usage to stop open defecation. Paul has successfully mobilized more than Rs. 6 million from district administration and Rs 0.25 million from community as contribution. GP is housing more than 840 HHs and more than 500 HHs are already a part of the promoted WASH institution. In coming year, Paul has planned to work with 15000 HHs and reach more than 75000 people directly by expanding in other areas.

Is your organization currently legally registered in India?

  • Yes

What states or districts will you target/are you targeting within India?

Currently, we are working in Odisha and in preparatory phase to start in Uttar Pradesh.

Tell us a bit about yourself.

Paul has been founded by passionate rural development professional who are working in space of community based institution and addressing WASH with them. The team has sound grassroots experience by working with state government like Odisha, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. Paul is founded with aim to work closely with government and community based institutions to design and develop scalable intervention with support of low-cost technology.

I have over three years of experience with non-profit and government sectors in India. Worked in partnership with various INGO, multilateral agencies to implement community base on WASH projects. Also done freelance project with Corporate CSRs like Arcelor Mittal, FICCI-CSR Center Excellence etc. I have studied masters in Rural Development.

Is this a new or recent idea for your organization? How does it differ from what you are already doing?

The idea is the first and new for our organization but as it has been inspired by the pilot which was conducted in Telangana by Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty under Telangana Rural Inclusive Growth Project by involving the SHG federation. Open defecation is rampant in rural areas as it is a socially accepted phenomenon; through our project we plan to involve the community and make usage of toilet as the “new normal”. While earlier we were only focused on strengthening the community, based on our experience in the pilot GP in Odisha, the idea has been improvised and reformed to include various financial options to ensure sustainability. In the future, we also plan to establish a for-profit arm to encourage community based entrepreneurs and manage the supply chain of material for construction of toilet cum bathrooms.

What are the two or three biggest risks for your idea and how will you manage the risks?

One of the major risks is that we work with extremely vulnerable section of society where families as well as communities have other priorities as they do not realize the importance of sanitation and hygiene. Also sanitation doesn’t have a “one size fits all” solution. Hence, we have carefully designed the project based on discussion with community, thereby ensuring there involvement and approval.
As government subsidy comes after construction of toilets, it is difficult for poor households to construct toilets. We are trying to provide them different financial products for constructing the toilets like fund from district administration, CSRs, GP funds etc.
Maintaining balance between supply & demand of material pose a huge risk. To tackle with this issue, we procure material in bulk as per the number of households who have provided community contribution. We are also planning to promote enterprises for maintaining supply chain by identifying interested SHGs and provide cheap loan

How would you propose to track or record the households or customers reached?

In the initial phase of our discussion with the community, we conduct a baseline survey with the help of Federation to map households without toilets or with dysfunctional toilets. Community based igilance committee updates the list weekly with the households who have new toilets. Also, we will develope mobile-based application to digitalize the entire process. The technology will be used for collection of data, geotagging households and for providing district evidence for verification and funds

If you had two years and $250,000 USD in funding, how many households or customers would you reach?

Paul aims to work in 10 districts in next 2 yr, reaching 4000 HHs per district on an average.
A part of the grant will be used meet the unit cost per household and BCC activities while scaling up ($166500). As there is a risk of delayed transfer of funds from district, grant will also be used as a revolving fund ($50000). This fund will be given to Federation at zero interest to ensure that there is no delay in construction of toilets and will be reimbursed as soon as the district transfers the amount to federation. The same can be used to provide cheap loan and training to entrepreneurs who are interested to establish sanitary marts. We will also pilot WASH interventions in 50 schools ($15500). The remaining part of grant will be used to strengthen our monitoring system and support any innovation we want to try during the two years ($19000). Thus, overall the grant will play crucial role at initial stage and will help in reaching out to 40,000 HHs and around 2,00,000 people directly.

How would you propose to invest $250,000 USD if you received philanthropic/grant funding support from

1. Training to SHGs, youth groups for making cement rings and cement bricks
2. Training to masons for quality construction of toilet cum bathroom
3. Developing WASH based games, IEC material
4. Training to school teachers and child cabinet for monitoring, conducting different activities
5. Bulk procurement of material to bring down cost of construction
Following are being considered under innovation:
1. Developing ICT based monitoring tool for effective implementation of work
2. WASH based Journalism to capture compelling stories of change makers belonging to community
3. WASH advocacy and research

What type of support beyond grant funding are you most interested in?

We are looking for support in linkages with financial institutions, advocacy platform and networking with organizations working on WASH issues for partnering on innovative ideas, learning and sharing knowledge.

Does your organization have Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) approval?

We do not have FCRA approval however, we will be applying for prior permission for FCRA approval . Alternatively, the support from Water.Org grant could be given as service fees to the organization. We are also exploring if there are any other legal ways to receive the grant.
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Team (4)

Kapil's profile
Prerana's profile

Role added on team:

"Prerana Somani currently works as Consultant for UNICEF and provides technical support to Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, West Bengal for promoting WASH in Schools. She has almost 5 years of experience in development sector and has worked on WASH, Health and Nutrition projects in SERP, Hyderabad and Charutar Charitable Trust, Anand, Gujarat. She has done Rural Management from IRMA. She has been associated with Paul for BCC and WASH in Schools interventions ."

Shivanshu's profile
Shivanshu Sharma

Role added on team:

"Shivanshu Sharma is currently working with UPSRLM as Mission Executive. He has successfully piloted a WASH layering in a SHG based model in SERP Telangana and played instrumental role in ODF status of 4 villages. He has experience in liaising with different stakeholders like World Bank, RWSS, BMGF and other technical partner to implement the project. He is a Development Management graduate from IIFM Bhopal. In Paul, he has been providing support for Capacity Building on technological aspects."

Dhiren Singh Bagri's profile
Dhiren Singh Bagri

Role added on team:

"Dhiren Singh Bagri has an over three years of work experience. He was an instrumental in implementing NRLM project in Ganjam District Odisha. Having command over field and excellent understanding in promoting community base institutions, he holds a rural development degree from NIRD Hyderabad. He is the consultant for Government linkages and community mobilization in Paul."


Join the conversation:

Photo of Thi Bao Ngoc Nguyen

Hi team,
I'm impressed with the ideas about sustainable behavior changes. And I think this idea would have a significant impact in the long-term as your team also focuses on educating children about sanitation. However, as your team suggests that due to the priorities, it is difficult to make families and communities realize the importance of sanitation and hygiene. So how can your discussion can change the community's mind about sanitation and hygiene (for example, although they know that sanitation is important but they don't have time or they don't want to waste money in hygiene as they feel other things such as their children's education is more important).
Anyway, I really love the idea and wish you and your team all the best!

Photo of Kapil

Nguyễn Ngọc Thank you for showing interest in our work. Our intervention try to address as community where people belong to sub set of early starter to last lag. Since saturation approach adopted, Many family where Sanitation is not in a priority also comes forward to avail benefit, contribute towards WASH institution and invest fraction of money for a sustain financial solution.

Photo of Ashley van Edema

Hi Team, 
I love that you are engaging the community you are seeking to serve in your research and focusing not just on providing physical solutions (toilets etc.) but working to support behavior change. It sounds like you have wonderful background knowledge on the subject and have considered the cultural implications of promoting change. I especially appreciate how you have integrated capacity building into your concept and will engage youth in the community in both the construction and implementation of your project. I look forward to following your progress and seeing how your innovative approach can help to elicit change in this area. Keep up the great work! 

Photo of Shivanshu Sharma

Dear Ashley Coates , Thank you for your interest in our work. With our experience in Rural India, we found that more than 50% of the constructed toilets are not being used due to different socio-cultural issues so our focus is on not only on construction but on the usage of toilets. We realized that engaging community is critical for achieving the dream of 'Swachh Bharat' by 2019. Our team comprises of individuals from institutes like Institute of Rural Management-Anand (IRMA), Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM)-Bhopal & National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD)-Hyderabad. The team has experience of working with community, government and CSR organization in different geographies like Odissa, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh etc. We believe that stakeholders involvement at all levels is critical for successful implementation of any program and thus the community involvement is too high on each step in our processes. 

Thanks again,

Photo of Joan DeGennaro

Hi Kapil and team!! This looks like great work! Our team at SHRI has focused on a community sanitation model for reaching rural Indians. However, we have also had some experience with household toilet reimbursements and thinking about how MGNREGA funding could go toward sanitation initiatives. Our work is currently focused in Bihar, but I think our experiences and learnings could be applicable to share. 

Have you had any experiences with moving the reimbursement process along more quickly/efficiently or working in more accountability for local government officials. We would love to see this process be more transparent and an empowering experience for community members in getting this service from the government. I'd love to hear your thoughts!

Keep doing what you're doing!

Photo of Kapil

Joan DeGennaro Thank you for interest in our work. Our primarily focus on providing a critical support to a local government administration to implement scalable demand driven sanitation intervention. So before any intervention, we mainly engage with a district administration and chalk out agreeable intervention plan and involving govt official through out the process. This help us in getting financial support under govt schemes. Our team members work with a government administration and focus more on improving deliver mechanism with constant engagement. This lead to more acceptability and faster release of funds.

Photo of OpenIDEO

Hi Kapil, we've added new Refinement questions to your original idea submission form. To answer the new questions, hit the Edit Contribution button at the top of your post. Scroll down to the entry fields of the new Refinement questions. Hit Save when you are done editing.

Photo of Shane Zhao

Hi Kapil, we have a few days left before the conclusion of the Refinement phase. It'd be fantastic if you might answer the new questions we added to your idea submission form. To update your post, please follow the tips in the previous comment from OpenIDEO. Looking forward to learning more!

Photo of Lara

It is interesting to note that you have been able to mobilise government departments support and funds. This is definitely not easy.
You plan to construct toilet and bath facility in 12000.... This seems difficult in terms of use of ffective technology and  quality. What material will you be using? Also the government subsidy comes after construction of toilet. Hope you will be able to organise funding. 
All the best! 
Pls see our idea 

Photo of Shivanshu Sharma

Hi Lara! You are right on the point that mobilizing funds from government department is not that easy but currently there is a strong impetus around WASH and SBM guidelines also consider supporting innovative NGOs for helping India achieving its dream of open defecation free by 2019.  With my limited experience I have observed that motivated bureaucrats are eager to extend help to the organizations/young individuals who wants to develop solutions that support households for improving access to hygienic sanitation in India. 

Coming to your second point about quality of toilets with bathrooms in Rs. 12000/-.  We at Paul believe in pumping maximum investment (toilet construction cost) in the local economy. We are training local masons, local brick & ring manufacturer etc for improving the financial ecosystem within the village. This strategy is also helping us in maintaining supply for the demand coming from the community. Community is also contributing in terms of cash and kind. Each household is contributing Rs. 500 to Rs. 1000 & labor for digging pits and basement for toilets. We are also exploring various technological options and are trying to bring down cost of raw material by bulk procurement.

In Odisha, 90% of the households lives under the income category of Rs. 5000 per month  (SECC data) and as you rightly said that government subsidy comes after construction of toilets, it is difficult for these households to construct toilets and claim the reimbursement from the government. We are trying to provide them different financial products for constructing the toilets. District and community are supporting us realizing the real intentions behind the initiatives and we are looking for funding agencies fro scaling up this idea.

Photo of Prerana

Hey Lara! With our experience in rural part of Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and other states, we have observed that their are 2-3 public sources of water like pond, lake etc. in each village. People not only go out to defecate in open in morning but also take bath and wash clothes with soap in pond thereby polluting the water source and later, using water from same sources for drinking and cooking. We realized that constructing only toilets is not going to help community in longer run. And then came the idea of toilet with bathroom for providing the community a customized solution!
 As suggested by Shivanshu Sharma , we are investing a lot of our energy in finding cheaper technical solutions to build these quality toilets. As community is involved in all steps of the process, they are highly alert about the quality of the toilet. We are building capacity of community to manufacture the materials to ensure production of quality material at low cost. This also reduces our cost of transportation and helps in generating livelihoods. However, we are a very young organization and funding definitely is a challenge. Hence, we are approaching government, CSRs, donor organization and any interested agency/ individual to diversify and strengthen our financial framework for scaling up our initiative.

Photo of Ron

Hi Kapil,
I found your challenge solution very interesting. I agree that educating the people of India is a very important core strategy in order to facilitate a change in culture. The people of India have been defecating out in the open for generations. The idea of change for them is not going to be easy. As we all know, getting adults to change their customs and what they've been taught can be very difficult. My suggestion would be to work within the education system in India. Cultural changes can be much more effective when they are taught to the young population.  I strongly believe that this strategy would give your plan a much better chance for success.  The younger generation needs to stop accepting defecating in the open as a way of life. Once they have learned to use toilets, I believe the next generation and those after will follow.  Have you any plans to work with young children?  I only read about adult women in your challenge briefing.

Photo of Kapil

Ron  Thank you Ron for showing interest in our work. You have rightly pointed out about the Open Defecation is a long generational issue for rural India. In fact many of family whom we supported to construct toilet, they are treating this as one of the new innovation in entire life. The Social, Health and Economic problem due to open defecation need to be realised by rural people which is not understood yet as they are practicing open defecation since many generation. Also you have rightly pointed out that Children could be the major change agent if we can imbibe the value of sanitation and hygiene from school itself. We have intervention plan under WASH with School, Anganwadi Center (Govt Child Care Center) and possibly starting the intervention in some of identified areas. 

Photo of Kapil

Ron In continuation to previous response, n our intervention, women play a critical role. As strategically, we have identified women groups like Self Help Group which is promoted by different state government, NGOs and institutions and as per govt data, India has more than 8 million such group which covers more than 80 million rural family. This community institution has financial capability and large reach. So we start with women group and slowly men also get involved in entire process. We have active men's, who are village leaders, participation and contribution among WASH based institution. We see this intervention is not as isolation of WASH intervention but from sustainability perspective, this institution can play an important role in future development work in village with set governance and financial capabilities. Also we see that through Indian govt's commitment under Swachha Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission) to provide sanitation facility to each households by 2019 is a big boost to this issue but also fear that it doesn't become a mere construction driven program. Our intervention explore association with government and building community base wash institution and developing model for a scalable intervention.

Photo of Ron

I am impressed by the strategy to work with the Self Help Women's group. I think this will be a successful strategy along with the focus on educating the children and teaching them the hazards and dangers to their own health that open defacation causes.   I'm wondering if you have reached out the challenge idea related to e-toilets?  It is called E-toilets - India's first electronic toilet by Midhu Sv.  I think that your idea can fit very nicely with the work that this group is doing by installing e-toilets through out India. I see that the two of you would complement each other's ideas very well. They can construct and build the e-toilets, but they need you to educate the citizens to use them. Likewise, you can educate the women and children, but it seems that you need also to have the equipment installed for them to be able to use when they buy in to the concept.   Another thought I had was if you have thought of reaching out to various missionaries who may be willing to live within the community so that they can model the behavior that you are trying to teach to the Indian population?  I have seen documentaries where the poor citizens of third world countries view the missionaries as almost like celebrities. Human behavior proves that when a person idolizes another person, they want to mock their behavior in order to be more like their idol.

Photo of Prerana

Hi Ron, thanks for your query! In any rural area, most of the households have at least one child in the age range of 5 years to 16 years. WASH in Schools is an upcoming area and the Ministry of Human Resource Development has also started focusing on strengthening WASH in schools through new interventions which began with government mandating gender segregated toilets in all schools. Our organization will be trying to deal with unsanitary habits through two channels, the SHG network and through schools, thus focusing on two critical sections of the society, women and children. Our team already has an exposure of working on WASH in Schools and currently we are in the phase of finalizing our strategy and activities for WASH in Schools. The activities are a mix of school based and community based approaches;based on the local situation and availability of resources different activities will be implemented in different schools. Also, we are looking for partners who can provide us funds so that we can install facilities like innovative toilets and urinals which would consume less water, incinerators etc. in schools. 
Also, your ideas with missionaries is well taken, especially since there are missionary schools in many rural and tribal areas. Appreciate your interest and suggestions for our initiative!

Photo of Shivanshu Sharma

Hi Ron, Thank you for showing interest in our work. I agree with your idea of targeting the education system for solving the issue of open defecation and majorly the behavior change part. We, at Paul firmly believe that children can play critical role as agents of change for promoting improved water, sanitation and hygiene behaviors.

Sanitation should have been private good but in current atmosphere it is a public good and community led and community saturation approaches are the one of the best ways for solving this mammoth issue of open defecation in India. Paul is focusing on targeting all the existing institutions in a village ecosystem like SHGs, anganwadi centers, schools, panchayats for achieving the dream of "Swachh Bharat" by 2019. 

Thank you for giving the idea of E-toilets.  We are exploring the opportunities to partner with organizations who can provide low cost innovative designs for improving WASH status in rural India and will be happy to partner with such organizations.

Photo of Sikandar Meeranayak

Hello - your work is very interesting and perhaps we can collaborate with education/training /information .. we have prepared a video with some ideas ... maybe if you have a few minutes you can view this and see if this concept interests you and if you may consider collaboration and offering your ideas to this.  The video link is  Thank you very much. 

Photo of Kapil

Sikandar Meeranayak Thank you for reaching out to us. We would be definitely look for a mutual collaboration pertaining to your expertise. Thank you

Photo of OpenIDEO

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