The bio-toilet, based on the bio-digester technology, consists of an easy to install super-structure (or the shelter), a multi-chambered matriced bio-tank that holds the bacterial culture (or the inoculum) and allows the treatment of the human waste. The system doesn’t need any external energy for treatment, rather gives out pathogen-free effluent water that is good for gardening and similar purposes; and small quantities of biogas that could be used for cooking or heating (in case of large tank sizes). The bio-digester technology was initially developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the defence personnel. Banka BioLoo has been taking this green and sustainable sanitation solution to the civil population with varying applications, across different user groups including households, schools, construction and infrastructure sites.
While the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (स्वच्छ भारत अभियान) / Clean India Mission rolls, bio-toilets or bioloos add the green dimension to this initiative.
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), the defense R&D arm, undertakes research for the development of defence forces. Apart from other fascinating developments is the patented bio-digester technology – a set of bacteria that “eat away” human faeces and leave effluent water that can be reused for gardening etc., apart from biogas that can be utilized for cooking, heating and similar purposes.
“Bio-digester” technology treats human waste at source. A consortium of anaerobic bacteria has been formulated and adapted to work at temperatures as low as -5°C and as high as 50°C. These act as inoculums (seed material) to the bio-digesters and convert the organic human waste into water, methane and carbon-dioxide. The anaerobic process inactivates the pathogens responsible for water-borne diseases. Bio-digesters serve as reaction vessel for bio-methanation and provide anaerobic conditions and required temperature for the bacteria. The special design of the bio-tank can be customized as per the requirement and need of the client or end-user/beneficiary, and these toilets form “zero discharge” human waste solution.
Salient features of bio-digester based applications:
• No foul smell in toilets from the bio-tanks
• No need for removal of solid waste – hence no/limited maintenance
• Effluent is free from odour and solid waste
• Reduction in pathogens by 99% and organic matter by 90%
• Limited / no requirement of adding bacteria
• Use of cleaning agents is permitted up to 84 ppm
• No infestation of cockroaches, flies and other insects
The bio-toilet could be built or erected at any place without the need for connection to sewer or storing the waste matter. The bio-toilets could be made from varying materials: fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP), brick and cement or concrete, and wood. We have used all these materials for different end-users, depending on the budget and the requirement. In recent times, we have found pre-cast concrete structures to be the best - economical, sturdy and long-lasting. These are transported to the site and installed/assembled within an hour.