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End Hunger and Malnutrition in Tanzania (EHMT)

Accelerating maize-legume improved varieties sustainable intensification technology to smallholder farmers for food security and nutrition.

Photo of George Karwani
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Written by

Lead Applicant Organization Name

Tanzania Agriculture Research Institute (TARI) - Selian center

Lead Applicant Organization Type

  • Researcher Institution

If part of a multi-stakeholder entity (i.e. team), provide the names of other organizations and types of stakeholders collaborating with you.

Tanzania Agriculture Research Institute (TARI), Tanzania Food and Nutrition Center (TFNC), International Maize and Wheat improvement Center (CIMMYT), Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) International Plant Nutrient Institute (IPNI). District Agriculture, Irrigation and Cooperative Office of Siha, Hai, Arumeru,Karatu, Mbulu, Hanang, Mbozi and Momba. Their role will be to mobilize farmers, training farmers of the use of SI technology and Site specific nutrient management, regularly monitoring of the fields to make sure that all the recommendations are fulfilled through their extensions services. The extension will be trained on the use of applications to continue advise farmers to accelerate and enhance the sustainability of the use of the technologies. TFNC will oversee the nutrition status while TARI constitutes the project implementing team and international organizations will be providing technical backstopping.

Website of Legally Registered Entity

www.tari.go.tz

How long have you / your team been working on this Vision?

  • 1-3 years

Lead Applicant: In what city or town are you located?

Arusha

Lead Applicant: In what country are you located?

Tanzania

Your Selected Place: what’s the name of the Place you’re developing a Vision for?

Anticipated to work in four regions of Tanzania which are Manyara, Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Songwe has a total area approximately 74,000 km^2

What country is your selected Place located in?

Tanzania in Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Manyara, Songwe regions of Siha,Hai, Arumeru, Karatu, Mbulu, Hanang, Mbozi and Momba districts respectively

Describe your relationship to the place you’ve selected.

I came to be connected with the places when I was working with the project known as Taking Maize agronomy to Scale in Africa (TAMASA) lead by CIMMYT. The places are pioneers of maize and beans production, country food basket and in focus for food security. These areas are overpopulated because of the climate condition do support agriculture that as caused land fragmentation. These places are good use of fertilizers in blanket recommendations that causes to over fertilization and pollution of the land , many times less use of fertilization and less of maize yields. Sustainable Intensification (SI) are ideal and the use of Nutrient Expert (NE), the site specific nutrient management tool. The SI and NE provided smallholder farmers with the balanced use of land and the site specific nutrient recommendation respectively. The use of SI and recommendations using Nutrient Expert tool were given to individual smallholder farmers of about 2500 and 514 in Northern Zone and Southern zone of Tanzania respectively under TAMASA project in Tanzania (https://tamasa.cimmyt.org; 2014-2018). The recommendations to smallholder farmers represent a wide range of soils and climates in Tanzania soil from experiments conducted by AfSIS project (www.africasoils.net; 2009-2019). The result showed that there were double of attainable maize and common beans yields as compared with previous seasons. Being an agriculture research officer, working in rural area, the project were a pilot and reached less farmers as compared the farmer’s populations. Therefore, I find it is I deal if we win a prize through our partners to upscale the SI technologies with improved seed varieties with high nutrition. Provide the tool with extension officers in respective districts for sustainability  food security and nutrition. 

Describe the People and Place: Provide information that would be helpful for an outsider who has never been there and may have no context about this Place to better understand the area.

Tanzania is an East African country known for its vast wilderness areas. They include the plains of Serengeti National Park, a safari mecca populated by the “big five” game (elephant, lion, leopard, buffalo, rhino), and Kilimanjaro National Park, home to Africa’s highest mountain. Offshore lie the tropical islands of Zanzibar, with Arabic influences, and Mafia, with a marine park home to whale sharks and coral reefs. It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. Tanzania is located on the eastern coast of Africa and has an Indian Ocean coastline approximately 1,424 kilometers long.

The project is anticipated to scaling up the technologies to many smallholder farmers in Southern highlands and Northern zones of Tanzania, comprises of Songwe and Kilimanjaro, Manyara, and Arusha regions respectively.The Southern Highlands Zone is an administrative zone at latitude 9°19′37.20″ south, longitude 34°09′54.00″ East, bordering with three countries namely Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia. The Northern Zone is an administrative zone at latitude 3°51′41.40″ south, longitude 36°59′44.16″ East, bordering with Kenya. There climate variations within zone but some place are one-modal with very cool and temperate while other places are bimodal that get two rain seasons; the short rains are generally from October to December, the long rains last from March to June.

The main grown food crops in Tanzania are Maize, Rice, Cassava, Sorghum, Beans, potatoes, millet, bananas and wheat. While; the Tanzania’s main exported cash crops are tobacco, cashew nuts, coffee, tea, cloves, cotton, and sisal.

Tanzania has more than 120 tribes but commonly speaks the national language which is Kiswahili, a native language. They do speaks official language which is Kiswahili and English. Their people are very humble and like much visitors. The staple food depends on the location and tribes but the mostly commonly food are from maize and paddy in forms of Ugali and Rice respectively.

What is the estimated population (current 2020) in your Place?

5600000

Challenges: Describe the current (2020) and the future (2050) challenges that your food system faces.

Agriculture is Tanzania’s economic mainstay, contributing USD 13.9bn to its GDP (nearly 30%) and 67% to total employment during 2014.Agricultural land in Tanzania was last measured at 396,500sq.km in 2013 (45% of total land area) versus 369,744sq.km in 2008, representing an increase of 7% over the 5–year period. Despite of agriculture importance in Tanzania; food insecurity and malnutrition are serious challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) smallholder farming systems, the majority of production is below the expected potential due to poor agronomic practices and lack of improved crop seed varieties. According to Tanzania census 2012 the population is around 57.4 million and expected to increase to 120,000 million by 2025 and 180 million by 2050. Such an increase in population growth will intensify pressure on the nation’s natural resource base (land, water, and air) to achieve higher food production. The prevailing challenges are; Overpopulation, climate change, poor crop agronomic and management practices, lack of improved crop seed varieties rich of vitamins and iron essential for children, pregnant women and elderly, socio-economic factors inclusive policies.

The Tanzania national development plan 2016-2021 focuses in achieving economic transformation and human development through industrialization so as to accelerate progress towards the development vision 2025. The national initiatives will not be reached if these known food insecurity and malnutrition blockers of economic growth  are not tackled or solved. The socio- economic consequence for food insecurity are death, rural-urban migration of youth searching jobs apart from farming hence reduces crop productivity among adults leading to further economic losses. Malnutrition has been realized in Tanzania, especially for children that weakened immune system, increase mortality rate, impart brain development and impair motor skills. Other consequence are vision impairment and blindness, physical disabilities, mental retardation. More resulting into weakening of cognitive development among children with long term effects notably on; reduced school attendance, reduced school performance and diminishing learning capacity. Malnutrition also affects pregnant women, increase risk of severe birth complications, fetal death and miscarries. Increased cases of diet chronic non- communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases) among other diseases.

Address the Challenges: Describe how your Vision will address the challenges described in the previous question.

Increased food production could be achieved by expanding the land area under crops and by increasing yields per unit area but knowing that the land is fixed and the population is increasing. Sustainable Intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. These innovative approaches will overcome the increased population growth and climate change by 2050.Therefore the project is anticipated using maize- legume sustainable intensive farming and the use of good improved crop varieties to increase yields per unit area and the nutritional status both on land and the consumers. The project also anticipated to use the available information and bio-fortified maize and beans verities developed by CIMMYT, AfSIS and CIAT led projects. The project will effective targeting smallholder farmers and their families in the project area. Introduction of SI- technologies of maize and legumes improved varieties rich in vitamins. The key of the vision will be M&E of maize-legume R&D (research and development) programs at farmer’s fields. Through TAMASA-CIMMYT for maize and for common beans SIIL feed the future, the USAID supported projects to unlock the potential partners of maize and common beans in accelerating the adoption of production practices and improved varieties to reach many smallholder farmers in Tanzania.

Often times new technologies developed in the agriculture sector have implications on gender especially women. In most less developed countries, women farmers are responsible for their family food security and nutrition. Under such conditions, food security and nutrition goals are more achievable if women have access to inputs and services. This project can improve access to innovation and technology by women looks at options which are women friendly. More during development of farmer’s producer groups will make sure that women are sensitized and purposively leading the groups.

The project will generate evidence on the value of investing in data systems to support good agronomy for individual householders or aggregated for service-providers, and for policy-makers to justify and support investments in SI practices. Credible evidence on areas, constraints and actual and attainable yields will contribute to this, both currently and under future scenarios. The capacity of service providers will be increased through co-generation and tailored capacity building programs to use the sustainable intensification.

Therefore the combined with the greater use of location specific agronomic predictions, advice and related applications by service providers, will lead to more farmers having access to the necessary knowledge (and in the case of farmers, inputs-fertilizer and improved seeds) to increase yields, nutritional and profitability

High Level Vision: With these challenges addressed, now provide a high level description of how the Place and the lives of its People will be different than they are now.

Agriculture is Tanzania’s economic mainstay, contributing USD 13.9bn to its GDP (nearly 30%) and 67% to total employment during 2014.Agricultural land in Tanzania was last measured at 396,500sq.km in 2013 (45% of total land area) versus 369,744sq.km in 2008, representing an increase of 7% over the 5–year period.

The immediate beneficiaries will be smallholder farmers and their families in target geographies for whom sustainably increased yields on maize, common beans and potentially increased food security, nutritional status and livelihoods. Hopeful Tanzania will be food secured, reduced children and pregnant mortality rate, decreased the rural urban youth migration, women and youth living happier because of food security.

The ultimate beneficiaries will be service providers, national research and extension services who are able to use the knowledge and technology to continuously promote the technology use as well as potentially grow their business.

There should also be spillover of the knowledge of the use sustainable intensification technologies and bio-fortified improved crop varieties rich with vitamins to partners in Tanzania and other users in SSA to ensure the long term benefits of this investment.

Lastly the use of SI technology is environment friendly, overcome land fragmentation of increased population and diversifies nutrition. It assist in sustainable land use and managements for present and future generation. 

The processes of sustainable intensification (SI) of maize-legume improved varieties will be scaled up and out in 2020- 2050 for more use and adoption as part of a longer term systems-based strategy. Believing that these innovative approaches will overcome the increased population growth and climate change by 2050.

Full Vision: How do you describe your Vision for a regenerative and nourishing food future for your Place and People for 2050?

According to Tanzania census 2012 the population is around 57.4 million and expected to increase to 120,000 million by 2025 and 180 million by 2050. Such an increase in population growth will intensify pressure on the nation’s natural resource base (land, water, and air) to achieve higher food production. Therefore increased food production could be achieved by expanding the land area under crops and by increasing yields per unit area through sustainable intensive farming. Accelerate and upscale the researched interventions and innovation of maize and common beans to which will results into food security and nutrition of the smallholder farmer’s families in Tanzania.

The End of Hunger and Malnutrition in Tanzania (EHMT) project consolidates the gains made by TAMASA and SIIL projects funded by the BMGF and USAID-feed the future respectively. Therefore EHMT initiative comprises the most important staple cereal (maize) and legume (common bean) in Tanzania and African continent at large. In the key of TAMASA project 2014-2018, BMGF focused geographies where maize are important but the production were low the potential (Tanzania, Nigeria and Ethiopia). TAMASA refocusing the work to improve the maize agronomy to scale of smallholder farmers by looking, a combination of environmental, management and socio-economic factors and their interactions to determine crop yield and its spatial variability. Capacitated CGIAR, key NARS, and Fertilizers blending companies on good agronomic practices and the use of advance technologies to advise smallholder farmers. SIIL-Feed the future project 2014-2019 funded by USAID focused on grain-legume intensification for sustainable food security, nutrition and resources endowment on land led by CIAT in Tanzania, Kansas state university and Michigan state university. CIMMYT and CIAT will improve the performance of its maize and common bean respectively, dissemination of good quality bio-fortified seeds to smallholder farmers through its breeding programs. The TFNC will test the improvements of nutrition status of the children age of 5 years old and below. The IPNI will improve maize physiology and agronomic practices to enhance nutrients uptakes based on specific site nutrient requirements. AfSIS will play the role of understand the soil nutrient endowment and constraints through soil analysis while the local government in conjunction with TARI mobilization of farmers, provide the site specific recommendations, monitoring, evaluation of the fields and make sure that farmers adopt modern best practices with respect to site specific nutrient management. Through the team work improves the technology to generate a continuous stream of improved agronomic practices for smallholders to achieve greater yields, nutritional, the prospect of higher incomes and improved livelihoods. In addition, the increase of the use of maize- common beans sustainable intensification inclusive site specific nutrient management in turnover can mitigate climate changes and other climate patterns complexes. For example the sole site specific nutrient management have many benefits to mention few; Provides options for risk management such as in-season drought and climate change variation especially rainfall. It provides an economic analysis of the recommended practice and that give option of farmers on the input use before planting. The tool give options for modifying recommendations based on farmer’s budget and the yield target. It is climate friendly, avoid toxicity of the land since the fertilizer use is calculate based on the site specific requirements.

Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. Therefore while, driving to enable public-private partnerships for enhanced fertilize uses to improve soil fertility of high functioning, integrated CGIAR/NARS and the local authority networks and coordinated sustainable intensification will be built to facilitate smallholder farmers’ access to good agronomic practices. Although significant adoption of maize- legume sustainable intensification in Africa has been reported, its overall use remains low. Fortunately, there is an emerging interest by the private sector like Moroccan fertilizer company (OCP), YARA, Minjingu fertilize company to include these site specific nutrient management recommendation in their portfolio fertilizer blending. However, the private sector’s hesitation to hasten expansion is driven by the lack of site specific information, including the technical and market performance of fertilizers, dearth of knowledge of the size, scale of the business opportunity and obscurity about the licensing and regulatory environment. EHMT will address these constraints by enabling the establishment of robust system that (i) increases the site specific nutrient recommendation to smallholder farmers (ii) quantity and quality of performance data substantiating agronomic practices (iii) boosts the availability of nutrient Expert software and regular updating it by strengthening the technical of public local extension staffs through technical, management and capacity building; (iv) establishes a clear path of bio-fortified and handover process from the research system to the private sector; and (v) enables private sector multipliers to seize opportunities to capitalize on the commercialization of fertilizers, maize seeds and grains. The project partners have experience in key frameworks which will be pursued to ensure a reliable fertilizer company supply model. The project is committed to linking with/aligning around new institutional agriculture initiatives in Tanzania of BMGF, USAID, Clinton Development Initiatives (CDI) and AGRA in these and other EHMT target geographies to obtain greater outcomes than would be possible through independent efforts.

EHMT is committed to gender equity as a guiding principle, considering the critical role women play in the societies. Women maize seed, fertilizer entrepreneurs and women-led families will garner special attention for capacity development in technical areas. To ensure women farmers have equal access to improved seed and fertilizers, gender-responsive demand will be generated through linkages and innovative public-private partnerships and platforms with actors along the commodity value chains and through demonstrations that directly expose women farmers and other value chain actors to the material. By the end of the project, the aspiration is reducing nation hunger, poverty and malnutrition responsibility of ensuring adoption of sustainable intensification of maize, common beans of highly rich with nutrition.

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Thank you so much for the Food Extension Initiative.

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