Improving agricultural productivity to increase food yield and quality
Describe the People and Place: Provide information that would be helpful for an outsider who has never been there and may have no context about this Place to better understand the area.
Maiduguri, also called Yerwa or Yerwa-Maiduguri, capital and largest city of Borno state, northeastern Nigeria. It is located along the seasonal Ngadda (Alo) River, the waters of which disappear in the firki (“black cotton”) swamps of Lake Chad, northeast of the city.
Modern Maiduguri actually comprisesthe twin towns of Yerwa and Maiduguri. In 1907 Yerwa was founded on the site of the hamlet of Kalwa and was named by Shehu (“Sheikh” or “Sultan”) Bukar Garbai as the new traditional capital of the Kanuri people (replacing Kukawa, 80 miles [130 km] north-northeast, the former capital of the Bornu kingdom [see Kanem-Bornu]). Meanwhile, the market village of Maiduguri, just to the south, was selected by the British to replace nearby Mofoni (Maifoni, Mafoni) as their military headquarters, and, in 1908, they built a residency in what then became the capital of British Bornu. The combined city—locally called Yerwa—was divided into the urban district of Yerwa and the rural district of Maiduguri in 1957, but outside Borno both political units are now known simply as Maiduguri.
The arrival of the railway in 1964 reinforced Maiduguri’s importance as the chief commercial centre of northeastern Nigeria. Livestock (mainly cattle but also goats and sheep), cattle hides, goatskins and sheepskins, finished leather products, dried fish (brought from Lake Chad), and gum arabic are the city’s chief exports, and there is also local trade in sorghum, millet, corn (maize), peanuts (groundnuts), and rice. There is a large cattle ranch at nearby Gombole, and there is poultry farming in the surrounding countryside. The Monday market at Yerwa, a tradition brought from Kukawa, is the largest in the state.
Address the Challenges: Describe how your Vision will address the challenges described in the previous question.
The well-behind of people, their qualityof life and access to service depends on their ability to support themselves through nutrition and ultimately on livelihoods.the livelihoods assets (raw material,human,economic, physical etc) across a range of sectors are very limited.
More than half of the assessed population in Maiduguri outer wards (52%)is food insecure, of which 5% are severely food insecure. The remaining 43% are only marginally food secure,therefore their situation could deteriorate if exposed to further shocks or go without food assistance.
Full Vision: How do you describe your Vision for a regenerative and nourishing food future for your Place and People for 2050?
Agriculture always plays an essential role in the economy of every country. Not only because of it tends to provide foods for the entire population of a country but agriculture helps to connects and interacts with all the related industries of that country. A country is usually believed to be a social, political and economically stable nation if the agricultural sector is very stable. However, people in developing countries who are depend on agriculture for their living are always much poorer than those who work in other sectors of the economy. And generally those who involve in agriculture sector are always represents a significant share of the total number of poor people in the countries where they live. Hence, there is a need to improve agriculture industry.
It is important to improve agriculture sector because it create job opportunities for its citizens. Agriculture is known as the backbone of the developing countries. It accounts for between 30 to 60 percent of the total GDP and employs about 70 percent of the total workers. Apparently, this are a huge amount of peoples involves in agriculture industry if compared to any other sectors in developing countries. In other words, agricultural sector is the major source of employment in most of the developing countries. This is because the owner of the farm usually found that it is necessary to hire additional hands for the purpose to cultivate the lands successfully and to look after the livestock. However, the increase of job opportunities is not only on farms but also in processing, advertising and packaging the agriculture product.
Not only that, agriculture sector helps to fully utilize the unused land in developing countries. The expansion of agriculture output caused abundant supply of unused land to be brought under cultivation.
Based on the standard of the “one-dollar-a-day threshold”, there are 1.2 billion poor people in developing countries. And among these peoples, there are 780 million of them facing chronic hunger, which means that their daily intake of calories is not enough for them to live healthy and productive lives. Besides, there are millions more suffer from specific nutritional insufficiency of one form or another. Most of the world’s hungry live in countries which are categorized as low-income and food-deficit nation. They are located mainly in the developing world and more than half of them are in Africa. These countries do not produce enough food to meet the demand of the citizens and they may not have enough foreign exchange to replace the shortfall by purchasing foods on the international market. This kind of situation getting serious especially when they are facing with loss of crops and livestock that caused by natural disaster or extremely high food prices on the international market. In order to feed people better, agriculture must strengthen its conservation goals by adding assortment to the food chain and by restoring the ecosystems.
Agriculture sector can reduce hunger as it ensures the food security of developing countries. The drive toward food security has seems to be slowed in recent years. The growth rate of agricultural production is declining, the world grain reserves have shrink to record lows, the commitments of aid to agricultural development have decreased as well and thus it boosting the demand for imported grain. This obviously opposed to the current situation of developing countries because their population is expanding. Food production is directly related to the daily life of human being. Food security is an immediate and future main concern for all developing countries. A stable agricultural industry plays an important role to ensure the food security of a country. Food security is considered as one of the basic requirements of any nation. None of the nation that consists of huge amount of hungry people can grow efficiently with a stable agricultural base because hungry people can do nothing towards helping to develop their country. Food security prevents starvation which often been considered as one of the serious problems that being faced by the small developing countries.
Furthermore, agriculture also ensures economic growth of developing countries. Agriculture is a fundamental source of income for developing nation that exists on this globe. Not only because of it provides food for our daily life, but mostly all the industries in the country depend on agriculture both directly and indirectly. The high rates of economic growth are basically linked with the rapid expansion of agricultural output.
In conclusion, it is crucial to develop the agriculture sector not only in the developing countries but every country in the globe.
suggestions to increase agricultural productivity.
Ways # 1. Transport Facilities:
To facilitate the farmers to produce new farm inputs and enable them to sell their product in markets, villages should be linked with mandies.
It would help to raise their income which in turn stimulates the farmer’s interest to adopt better farm technology with sufficient income.
Thus the cultivator can invest more for the improvement of land.
Ways # 2. Irrigation Facilities:
Crop productivity depends not only on the quality of input but also on the irrigation facilities. Therefore, canals, tube wells should be constructed to provide better irrigation facilities for the security of crops. Extensive flood control measures should be adopted to prevent the devastation caused by floods.
Ways # 3. Institutional Credit:
To save the farmers from the clutches of moneylenders, adequate credit facilities should be made available at reasonable cheap rates in rural areas. The land mortgage banks and co-operative credit societies should be strengthened to provide loans to the cultivators. Moreover, integrated scheme of rural credit must be implemented.
Ways # 4. Proper Marketing Facilities:
Marketing infrastructure should be widened and strengthened to help the farmers to sell their products at better prices. There should be proper arrangements for unloading of the produce in the markets. Besides, price support policy must be adopted and minimum prices should be guaranteed to the peasants.
Ways # 5. Supply of Quality Inputs:
The farmer in the country should be supplied with quality inputs at proper times and at controlled prices. To protect the farmers exploitation, effective steps are needed to be taken to check the sale of adulterated fertilizers.
Ways # 6. Consolidation of Holdings:
In various states consolidation of holdings is not satisfactory. Therefore, efforts should be made towards completing the consolidation work in the specific period of time. Big areas of land which are lying waste, can be reclaimed and made fit for cultivation.
Ways # 7. Agricultural Education:
In a bid to guide and advise the farmers regarding the adoption of new technology arrangements should be made for agricultural education and extension services. It would assist the farmers to take proper crop-care leading to increase in crop productivity.
Ways # 8. Reduction of Population on Land:
As we know, that in our country, majority of population depends on agriculture to earn their both ends meet. This increases the pressure of population on land which leads to subdivision and fragmentation of land holdings.
Therefore, proper climate should be generated to encourage the farm people to start employment in subsidiary occupations. It will help to reduce the population pressure on land. Surplus labour should be withdrawn from agriculture sector and be absorbed in non-agricultural sector.
Ways # 9. Provision of Better Manure Seeds:
The farmers should be made familiar with the advantage of chemical fertilizer through exhibitions and these inputs should be made easily available through co-operative societies and panchayats. Liberal supplies of insecticides and pesticides should be distributed at the cheap rates all over the country side.
Ways # 10. Land Reforms:
It is also suggested that efforts should be made to plug the loopholes in the existing land legislations so that the surplus land may be distributed among the small and marginal farmers. The administrative set-up should be streamlined and corrupt elements should also be punished. It will help to implement the law properly.
Ways # 11. Co-operative Farming:
To check the sub-division and fragmentation of holding, the movement of co-operative farming should be launched. Co-operative farming would result in the adoption of modern technology on so-called big farms. In this way, agriculture will become profitable occupation through economies of large-scale farming.
Ways # 12. Development of Cottage and Small Scale Industries:
In rural areas, more emphasis should be made to set up cottage and small scale industries. This will raise the income of the peasants and keep them busy during the off season.