The University of Western Australia Future Farm 2050 Project.
Regenerating the West Australian Wheatbelt for 2050 - creating a vision for clean, green, ethical dryland agriculture.
The UWA Future Farm logo depicts a mixed grain and sheep enterprise typical of farms in central Western Australia, with a Mediterranean climate and ancient depleted soils. Native Australian plants are used for shade, shelter and fodder for the sheep, whilst reducing (methane) emission intensity, sequestering carbon, conserving soil, improving soil health, and restoring biodiversity across the landscape.
Undulating landscape of UWA Future Farm Ridgefield, with ancient Australian Grass Trees in centre.
Summer grazing: Merino sheep at UWA FF2050
Winter grazing: Merino sheep near one of the smaller dams on UWA FF 2050.
A view down the main street of Pingelly, Wheatbelt South. There are approximately 1146 residents in the town, 40 000 across Wheatbelt South and 75 000 across the entire Wheatbelt region.
The WA Wheatbelt Development Commission (WDC) articulates development across the region.
Pingelly Community Resource Centre representatives with UWA Mike Bianco, Artist in Residence and Soula Veyadier International Arts Space Administrator, at the launch of Spaced 4: Rural Utopias.
The award winning Pingelly Recreation and Cultural Centre (PRACC).
UWA Institute of Agriculture Honorary Research Fellow, Patrick Beale, won the 2019 'An Architect of Necessity Award' in Sweden, for his sustainable design and materials used in the PRACC. The PRACC contains a function centre, sports hall, gym and storage, with wide verandas overlooking established playing fields. It is the largest wooden building built in the southern hemisphere since WWII. It has transformed the town.
Lead Applicant Organization Name
The University of Western Australia
Lead Applicant Organization Type
If part of a multi-stakeholder entity (i.e. team), provide the names of other organizations and types of stakeholders collaborating with you.
Financial stakeholder: The University of Western Australia (UWA)
Collaborations with Universities, Government, Industry, Grower Groups & Community incl:
World-wide University Network-Global Farm Platform,
Critical Zone Observatory & TERN,
Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation,
Australian Dept of Agriculture,
WA Dept of Primary Industries & Regional Development,
Wheatbelt Development Commission,
Meat & Livestock Australia,
Australian Wool Innovation,
Australian Merino Shire Evaluation Association,
The Food Animal Initiative,
Grains Research & Development Corporation,
Facey Grower Group,
WA No-till Farmers Association,
Pingelly Shire and Community Resource Centre,
UWA Centre for Regional Development,
WA Department of Education,
City Kids to the Country,
UWA Ecosystem Restoration and Intervention Ecology Research Group,
UWA Faculty of Arts, Business & Law,
Pingelly CRC: Staying in Place,
Artist in Residency: Rural Utopias.
Website of Legally Registered Entity
How long have you / your team been working on this Vision?
Lead Applicant: In what city or town are you located?
Perth, Western Australia
Lead Applicant: In what country are you located?
Your Selected Place: what’s the name of the Place you’re developing a Vision for?
Wheatbelt South (using UWA Future Farm 2050 'Ridgefield' (1600 ha) as a prototype farm), south-west Western Australia.
What country is your selected Place located in?
Describe your relationship to the place you’ve selected.
‘Ridgefield’ was purchased in December 2008 as a platform for a project, UWA Future Farm 2050 (FF2050). The vision for FF2050 was an economically viable, best-practice farming system for the local socio-geographic environment – the oldest and poorest soils in the world in a harsh Mediterranean climate.
This Place was selected because:
1) With 1600 hectares (4000 acres), it is a typical, commercially viable, mixed-enterprise, rain-fed, dryland farm, as seen in many food-producing areas of the world;
2) Western Australia (WA) is important for world food – in 2018, WA produced 18 m tonnes of grain (AUD$7 billion), 80% of which was exported globally;
3) The mix of enterprises (cereals, pulses, oil seed, sheep meat, wool) offers opportunities for integration and synergism, as well as economic resilience and versatility (multiple commodities), none of which are available in monoculture systems;
3) It is experiencing changing rainfall patterns, droughts, fires and frost, threatening future harvests and the financial security of farmers;
4) In this Place, many of our farming practices cause landscape degradation, biodiversity loss, and declining soil health; business as usual is no longer acceptable so farming must be transformed;
5) The Place is located within a typical rural community, near a town (Pingelly) that is at risk of social upheaval; FF2050 engages with this community through a variety of farming, cultural and outreach programs run by diverse disciplines at UWA (agriculture, environment, engineering, regional development, social science, arts, architecture), reflecting the multidisciplinary nature of this vision.
FF2050 Project Leader, Professor Graeme Martin grew up on a mixed enterprise sheep/grain farm in WA and has a deep connection to farming in this Place. He forged a prestigious international career in sheep reproduction before establishing the UWA Future Farm 2050 Project to tackle "the biggest issues facing humanity".
Describe the People and Place: Provide information that would be helpful for an outsider who has never been there and may have no context about this Place to better understand the area.
This map identifies the West Australia Wheatbelt regions of Australia and their relationship to the island continent.
The Wheatbelt of Western Australia is comprised of 5 sub regions, reflecting diversity of agricultural production but getting progressively drier and hotter moving north and inland. Pingelly and UWA Future Farm are in Wheatbelt South (dark grey) which covers 40268 sq km. (Central Wheatbelt has approximately 40,000 residents).
This map identifies the Wheatbelt town of Pingelly in the south west of Western Australia, where the UWA FF2050 Project farm is based, approximately 2 hours drive from Perth and UWA main campus.
West Australian Geographe Bay, Perth coastal suburbs and inland Wheatbelt taken by NASA from the International Space Station. Once completely covered by native forests, the extent of land clearing (93%) for agricultural use is clearly visible, with devastating loss of native biodiversity. South West WA has been identified as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots but this is increasingly under threat from climate change - drought and fires - and human development and agriculture.
With a Vision for reforesting the Wheatbelt with native Australian trees, it will be challenging to see if current rain and aquifers can support the establishment of such large numbers of trees.
The WA Wheatbelt is a vast area of ancient land dotted with small towns and large farms, containing 75,000 people in 155,000 sq km. It is softly undulating with ancient sandy soils, rocky outcrops and winter creek lines. It was once forested but, in the last 200 years, almost 93% of the land has been cleared, devastating the landscape, flora, and fauna, and causing massive problems such as salinity and soil erosion. These problems are exacerbated by climate change that is driving hotter longer summers, late frosts, and diminishing and unreliable rainfall patterns.
In this Place, agriculture is the key industry with typical mixed-enterprise farms producing cereals, oil grains, legumes, wool and sheep meat, predominantly for export.
The cultural foundation is Indigenous Australians, to which we add 200 years of European settlement and, more recently, multicultural immigration from Asia and Africa. Traditional dietary habits reflect cultural background, but WA has embraced a world-wide fusion of flavours and ingredients. Supermarkets are readily available in the Wheatbelt and our Health Department continues to promote healthy eating guidelines. Diets can be poor in low-income and socially disadvantaged families, with associated health issues such as obesity, diabetes and alcoholism. Indigenous communities, having been removed from their cultural lands and foods, continue to be at-risk from these health issues.
In addition, Wheatbelt communities are dwindling as economies of scale, coupled with a lack of regional economic development, education and employment, drive an exodus to the cities, resulting in shortages of skilled farm labour and a diminished local economy. Moreover, farmers are facing unprecedented protests: climate change, carbon emissions, ground-water pollution, animal welfare, ecosystem degradation, species extinction, chemical use and genetic modification of crops and livestock. They have also lost political power to city voters who have little understanding of agriculture or empathy for farmers – the 'City-Country Divide'.
The data show that WA farmers are some of the most resilient and innovative on the planet and they are committed to working together through networks (eg, 'Grower Groups') to find solutions to challenges. These networks are pivotal for disseminating information and for driving education and change.
Unique to this Place are regions of special interest: World Heritage-Listed Biodiversity 'Hot Spots', and sacred Aboriginal Sites. The current devastation by bush fires to native forests and indigenous sites is unprecedented in our history. Many species will be made extinct and many others will struggle to recover from this catastrophe because native habitats, seed banks, food sources and wildlife have been destroyed. Our Vision for FF2050 is to ensure the regeneration of the WA Wheatbelt so it can support our unique wildlife while continuing to produce food for humankind.
What is the approximate size of your Place, in square kilometers? (New question, not required)
What is the estimated population (current 2020) in your Place?
Challenges: Describe the current (2020) and the future (2050) challenges that your food system faces.
The 2020 Challenges
Global warming and climate change are already exerting pressure on our food system but there is no real policy framework to deal with GHG emissions from any sector, including agriculture. Greenhouse gas mitigation and carbon sequestration are low priority. Our food system is also facing a barrage of other challenges:
• Wheatbelt rainfall has fallen by 20% since the 1970s, and drought, heat waves, frosts and fires are more frequent. Over the century, stream flow has decreased from 338 GL to 51 GL, so catchments and groundwater have minimal inflows and biodiversity is being lost, threatening the entire ecosystem. Environmental regeneration is needed to reduce the severity of climate-related disasters.
• Agricultural systems are suffering from depleted soils and poor soil health.
• Communities lack development (education, training, health); have poor services (water, power, IT); limited off-farm economic opportunity and employment prospects; which has resulted in towns 'slowly dying'.
• Farmers have adopted high-quality genetics (crops, pastures, livestock) and some elements of precision agriculture, but need technical up-skilling so farm profitability and productivity can be improved via technical developments, maintaining a competitive advantage and adaptability to market trends.
• Local diets are multicultural but mainly supermarket-based, with a lack of local indigenous knowledge of cultural foods and agriculture; the challenge is to improve the diet and health status of socioeconomically disadvantaged, including local indigenous communities.
Fast-forward to 2050
Demand for Australia's intrinsically 'clean and green' agricultural produce is booming and economic opportunities for farmers have flourished.
The global climate has stabilised. Whilst actively sequestering carbon for 30 years, the Australian native Shade-Shelter-Fodder system has transformed the sheep meat and wool industry by halving methane emissions, drought-proofing fodder, improving lamb survival and animal health, restoring soil health, reducing salinity and erosion, and improving water use efficiency. The Wheatbelt is once again lush and green, with agricultural areas being part of a biodiverse mosaic with native trees and shrubs, teaming with Australia's iconic wildlife.
Our exported food has maximum nutrient density. Herbicide and pesticide contamination is history because agricultural plants have been bred to resist pests, and weeds in crops are managed with laser-armed swarm robots. Swarm robots manage soil fertility with precision by receiving data from sensors. Frosts are predicted so damage is mitigated.
The Wheatbelt Development Commission (WDC) has achieved its 2050 goals: 7% annual growth; increased population from 75,000 to 180,000; a workforce of 110,000; 30 towns off-grid for water and energy (Pingelly, having led the way). Off-farm employment opportunities have expanded to include microgrids, drones, forestry and conservation management, eco-modular housing, indigenous foods, and astro-adventure tourism. UWA FF2050 innovation and human centred design has become the blueprint for regenerative dryland agricultural systems.
Address the Challenges: Describe how your Vision will address the challenges described in the previous question.
FF2050 is multidisciplinary because it integrates typical Wheatbelt enterprises (sheep/crops) with environment, technology and community.
We will inspire mass reforestation of native trees and shrubs in biodiverse corridors across Wheatbelt farms using the Shade, Shelter, Fodder system. Inspired by UWA collaborative research (Eureka Prize 2013), this system provides multiple benefits to our food system:
- Rumen methane mitigation up to 50%,
- Drought-proof fodder,
- Shelter: increases twin lamb survival,
- Shade: reduces heat stress,
- Reduces gastrointestinal worms,
- Deep rooted: soil conservation,
- Promotes biodiversity: soil & wildlife,
- Reduces wind/water erosion,
- Carbon sequestration.
We will regenerate soil and sequester carbon by incorporating compost as an ongoing part of crop and pasture management, thus leveraging circular economies of recycling city, farm and local organic waste.
We will optimise inputs and outputs using ‘Smart Farm’ precision agriculture with full integration of soil and livestock sensors and big data, and upskill farmers to use this technology. UWA Agricultural Engineering will develop drones and swarm robot technology for more effective and ethical sheep husbandry, disease, weed and pest management thus eliminating pesticides and herbicides. Prize winning Seed Flamer technology will enable mass re-seeding of native drought-proof pastures.
Sheep genetics will be improved using results of current Merino Lifetime Productivity trials at Ridgefield, resulting in 25,000 F2 offspring for improving Australian flock traits, including, genes mitigating sheep odour to prevent flystrike thus eliminating mulesing. We will continue to build diversification in response to market demand by trialling new varieties of crops using precision agriculture, eg, drought-proof chick pea (UWA research 2019).
Our farmhouse is an eco-friendly flat-pack modular off-grid prototype which is part of a sustainable energy research project. With investment, we will fast-track this into a local business for rural and disaster (bush-fire) response housing, providing local employment.
We will collaborate to facilitate development of off-grid energy and water solutions for Pingelly as a demonstration town, and to facilitate development of local industries to transform the 30 rural towns identified by WDC, and to build a demonstration ‘sand dam’ at Ridgefield for ‘proof of concept’ for drought-proofing livestock.
High Level Vision: With these challenges addressed, now provide a high level description of how the Place and the lives of its People will be different than they are now.
Applying world class research and industry collaborations to solve complex farming problems, farmers now have increased data, knowledge, and regional to local insight to produce clean, green, ethical food and fibre with flexibility to adapt to future environments and markets.
New water, power, and IT solutions have created economic opportunity and development in sustainable industries (and outages are a ‘thing of the past’!) The rural exodus has reversed, with young families choosing rural towns for more community-orientated, sustainable life-styles compared to cities. The Wheatbelt is the preferred destination for climate refugees and they have contributed to the WDC desired economic growth and community development (7% pa), diversified food culture and local market garden enterprises. Pingelly and Wheatbelt South community towns are growing in harmony with active, coordinated, native habitat conservation, which is valued as a prime asset.
The regenerated environment is driving business and employment in forest management, environmental tourism and multiple outdoor activities for school camps, international and weekend visitors and backpackers, and the PRACC is now a destination for outdoor concerts, theatre, astrotourism and regional sports competitions. Indigenous communities are respected leaders in these initiatives, embedding cultural knowledge, agriculture and food safaris into the tourist experience and providing specialised training in cultural fire management of native forests.
Working in collaboration with Pingelly Community Resource Centre to facilitate community-centred change UWA FF2050 Eco-Social Work has already facilitated:
- Pingelly Recreation and Cultural Centre (UWA Rural Architecture),
- City Kids to the Country - Tree Planting,
- Indigenous linkages,
- UWA School of Social Sciences: Staying in Place Virtual Village,
- UWA & International Arts Space Artist in Residence: Rural Utopias
- Education outreach – primary, secondary, tertiary students & MOOC.
Full Vision: How do you describe your Vision for a regenerative and nourishing food future for your Place and People for 2050?
The UWA FF2050 Project showing multidisciplinary and interrelated themes and applications. FF2050 is a 'prototype' farm which trials and implements best-practice advances in livestock, cropping and environment in a commercial enterprise. We have significant outreach activities with over 600 Australian and international visitors in 2019, with ongoing industry and public education via demonstration sites, field days, MOOC (online course), primary, secondary and tertiary student engagement.
This graphic explores our beginning phase of examining our food system with the '6 themes approach' and systems thinking at project/local level. The complexity of mixed enterprise systems and addressing multiple challenges simultaneously is obvious!
Uniview Spring 2013: Article announcing the Eureka Prize for the ENRICH collaborative project between UWA, CSIRO and the South Australian Research and Development Institute. ENRICH identified the benefits of native Australian shrubs for decreasing methane emissions intensity in ruminant production systems.
Eureka Prize winning research (2013) at UWA FF2050 demonstrating an innovative way to fill a feed gap, drought proof production, improve reproductive efficiency and wool quality, and reduce methane emissions intensity using a diverse range of native Australian shrubs for sheep fodder .
Looking across FF2050 landscape to the Eureka Prize winning (2013) system of native Australian shrubs, chosen for their nutritional and bio-active properties, being tested for their palatability and methane mitigating potential for sheep production.
The Seed Flamer won the Mitsubishi Corporation Emerging Innovation Category at the 2016 WA Innovator of the Year awards. This collaborative research between UWA Assoc. Professor Andrew Guzzomi, and WA Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority will transform how vast areas of degraded agricultural land and mine sites are revegetated using native seed. Flames remove fluffy appendages and hairs on seeds creating ‘flow’ through mechanical seeders and provide opportunity to add germinating coatings.
The UWA FF2050 eco-sustainable modular farmhouse, made from sustainably sourced materials. The insulated roof sheating is coated with ceramic nanoparticles that reflect 40% more heat. Rain water is captured and stored in 2 x 128 kL tanks and crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic solar panels generate 10kWh electricity, stored via batteries. The house is on stilts to reduce damage from seismic activity and cross ventilation makes use of cooling winds. Sensors control internal lighting.
Professor Graeme Martin standing with trees planted in 2010 for research into carbon sequestration and ecosystem services (The Ridgefield Multiple Ecosystem Services Experiment: Can restoration
of former agricultural land achieve multiple outcomes?).
Students studying for their Masters in International Water Management from Griffiths University, Queensland, Australia visit FF2050 to discuss water conservation and management in dryland agriculture.
One of the low lying areas of the farm characterised by rising salinity. This area has been under rehabilitation for several years, using salt-tolerant native bushes to lower the water table and to sequester salt into leaves (saltbush), which subsequently allows secondary species to establish and thrive.
Year 9 Agriculture students on a field trip to UWA FF2050, to study environmental restoration in agricultural landscapes. Students examined quadrants for pasture and weed species, undertook soil testing (pH and salinity) and restoration of degraded land using native Australian saltbush species.
To cope with the ‘2050 Challenge’, we must go beyond business-as-usual in our food systems to sustain environments and human well-being. Clearly, this is a multidisciplinary challenge, so a multidisciplinary vision is needed for real-world farms. This challenge led to the establishment of UWA Future Farm 2050 (FF2050) on a commercial Wheatbelt farm, SW Australia. The aim of FF2050 is to imagine the ‘ideal’ farm (for its environment), transform a real-world commercial farm, and show that it is profitable. FF2050 brings together agricultural, environmental and social scientists, engineers, economists, designers, farmers, social workers, and local and regional stakeholders. The major farm enterprises are food crops, livestock production and re-vegetation of degraded land. People are paramount, so our project addresses the human centred design of rural communities.
Soil health is fundamental to all agro-ecological enterprises. Terrestrial life is sustained in the ‘critical zone’, the entire space from tree canopy down to the aquifer, in which there are interactions among atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. To support this holistic approach, FF2050 has a Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) that collects data to help us manage fertility, emissions and nutrient leaching of our soils, to support our management of the agricultural and natural ecosystems.
‘Clean, Green and Ethical’ (CGE) Livestock Management
A prevalent view is that ruminant industries cause rather than solve problems, but to ensure the production of sufficient food for humanity, we need to consider all options, and ruminants have a superpower – they digest grass to produce human food.
We manage 3000 sheep in concert with crop production and environmental management. In recognition of the societal pressure on animal production, our management is ‘Clean’ (minimising the use of drugs, chemicals and hormones), ‘Green’ (minimising the environmental impact especially methane emissions) and ‘Ethical’ (maximising animal welfare). We pursue this vision on two fronts:
1) Animal breeding - using genetics to optimise the sheep flock for CGE management, with a focus on resistance to gut parasites and fly strike, temperament and robustness.
2) Alternative grazing systems based on a diverse mix (not monoculture) of deep-rooted, perennial, indigenous plants that evolved in our climate and soils. For sheep, these plants help combat gastrointestinal nematodes, acidosis and methane emissions, and offer ‘edible shelter’ that reduces neonatal mortality in inclement weather. These plants improve land productivity by lowering the level of saline ground water, increasing soil carbon content and reducing wind speed (lowering water evaporation from the soil and preventing erosion). They also provide a reservoir for animals, increasing biodiversity. Our prize-winning alternative grazing system has been accepted by the FAO of the United Nations into its repository of best-practice models in grassland, rangeland and pastoral management.
Environmental Management and Restoration
Australian farmers are responsible for about half of our landscapes and see themselves as custodians of the environment and biodiversity. Ecosystem restoration is a win-win situation because it can improve farm productivity whilst contributing towards biodiversity conservation and human well-being.
Ridgefield has a few remnants of woodland vegetation that covered the region prior to clearing for farming. Most of the remnants are located on land that is not productive for crops, but they still act as ‘stepping stones’ to the neighbouring 6,700-hectare Boyagin Nature Reserve. Sheep are first excluded from remnant woodland and then patches of native vegetation are re-established to improve connectivity across remnants, prevent soil erosion and alleviate land degradation. Some native vegetation is planted alongside water courses to initiate the restoration of riparian ecosystems. This part of the project is the goal of 'City Kids to the Country', a program aimed at reconnecting city kids to the source of their food. Successive groups of city-based school students germinated thousands of native trees and shrubs and planted them in riparian corridors. These projects strengthen the understanding of soil, farming systems and biodiversity, among teachers and students, as well as highlighting the need for innovative science.
Environmental management and restoration offer more than biodiversity conservation because they bring ecosystem services that improve pasture productivity, prevent and control secondary salinization and as mentioned, provide fodder for livestock.
For the FF2050 vision, we must reduce GHG emissions by carbon sequestration, effectively becoming ‘carbon farmers’, a concept that recognises the significant opportunities for increasing the amount of carbon stored in and on farm land. Farmers will be rewarded by earning carbon credits through reforestation, protecting native forests, savanna fire management and sequestration of soil carbon through better grazing systems and management based on animal behaviours.
Infrastructure development needs to ‘future-proof’ the farm, including state-of-the-art animal handling systems for low-stress husbandry, top-quality buildings for people, and self-sufficiency for water and electricity.
The rural population exodus has led to a dearth of local builders and building materials, so homes are very costly. A common solution has been transportable homes, but poor-quality materials and construction, compounded by wind and vibration damage during transport, has led to low-quality structures. For Ridgefield, state-of-the-art design and innovative low-cost construction processes were used to produce a home that is factory-built to high standards and is environmentally efficient. The roof is insulated to the highest level and is clad with a metal sheet coated with ceramic nanoparticles that reflect an extra 40% heat. Deep eaves keep summer sun off external walls yet admit as much warming winter sun as possible. The structural frame and floors are built from renewable hardwood and timber certified as responsibly managed forests.
Water and Electricity
The farmhouse is self-sufficient for water and energy with rain water collected into two 128 kL tanks. Electricity is generated courtesy of state-of-the-art thin-film and bulk crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic technologies, generating a total of 10 kWh, combined with state-of-the-art batteries and monitoring.
Ridgefield is dependent on rainfall, so a major goal is to avoid business decisions about livestock enterprises being controlled by water availability. We have thus built a reliable water supply with a 3 ha roaded catchment and a 5500 cubic metre dam.
The Local Rural Community
Instead of being congratulated as the foundation of civilisation, as they have been throughout the history of agriculture, farmers are being criticised for climate change, carbon emissions, ecosystem degradation and animal welfare. They are poorly equipped to handle these pressures and therefore under great stress. In FF2050, we are developing technical solutions for the crop, livestock and ecosystem enterprises. However, for the long-term sustainability of the farmers themselves, and the rural communities in which they live, we need a different approach and we have turned to the discipline of ‘eco-social work’ to find avenues for changing behaviour, and to a ‘loss and grief model’ to allow us understand the responses of stressed farmers.
Eco-social work also brings deepening relationships between the university and community leaders, including Indigenous elders, in our rural community. We are located on Gnaala Karla Boodja land where farmers, animals and legislatures have influenced the landscape for over 200 years since colonial settlement. We therefore hosted an 'Acknowledgement of Country' ceremony in which Noongar elders performed the 'Welcome to Country' in front of a group of their family members, the Pingelly community and UWA staff and students.
At a broader level, the WA WDC has 4 goals in its Future Vision for 2050:
1) Vibrant economy: 7% average annual growth,
2) Clever workforce: target of 110,000 people,
3) Liveable communities: 180,000 people,
4) Valued natural amenity: 30 Wheatbelt communities off-grid for power and water; attracting global innovators and investment opportunities for world food production.
FF2050 will help the WDC achieve these goals by facilitating development and implementing adoption of collaborative solutions and providing a blueprint to lead transformation through local, national and international networks including:
• UWA Institute of Agriculture
• Global Farm Platform (https://globalfarmplatform.org): a network of model farms exploring solutions to challenges confronting ruminant production.
• FAO (United Nations) – best practice for sustainable grassland management http://www.fao.org/nr/sustainability/grassland/best-practices/best-practices/en/
• TreeDivNet (http://www.treedivnet.ugent.be) – use of native Australian plants to restore vegetation on unproductive farm land, promote carbon capture and provide ecosystem services, soil health, biodiversity.
• Critical Zone Exploration Network (https://www.czen.org): the Ridgefield Critical Zone Observatory assesses interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.
• TERN Australia (https://www.tern.org.au) - The Ridgefield Flux tower predicts changes in the terrestrial biosphere and climate to better manage natural resources, including water balance, carbon flows, (including sequestration) and nutrient resources.
How did you hear about the Food System Vision Prize?