Sustainable Food System Governance in Aceh
To enhance food system governance through capacity building to build sustainable food system towards food and nutrition security in Aceh.
Lead Applicant Organization Name
Aceh Provincial Food Service, Indonesia
Lead Applicant Organization Type
Government (City, State, National, etc.)
If part of a multi-stakeholder entity (i.e. team), provide the names of other organizations and types of stakeholders collaborating with you.
A provisional list of stakeholder to be contacted :
1. Syiah Kuala University/academics
2. Private Sector
3. Aceh Industrial Special Zone (Kawasan Industri Aceh)
Website of Legally Registered Entity
How long have you / your team been working on this Vision?
Lead Applicant: In what city or town are you located?
Lead Applicant: In what country are you located?
Your Selected Place: what’s the name of the Place you’re developing a Vision for?
Aceh, a province in Southern Sumatra Island, covers an area of 57,956.00 km².
What country is your selected Place located in?
Describe your relationship to the place you’ve selected.
Aceh Provincial Food Service is a public entity which operates in Aceh Province and has duties as follows
1. Formulation of regional policies in the fields of food availability, food insecurity, food distribution, food reserves, diversification of consumption and food security;
2. Implementing regional policies in the fields of food availability, food insecurity, food distribution, food reserves, diversification of consumption and food security;
3. Implementing coordinating the provision of infrastructure and support in the fields of food availability, food insecurity, food distribution, food reserves, diversification of consumption and food security;
4. Enhancing the quality of human resources in the fields of food availability, food insecurity, food distribution, food reserves, diversification of consumption and food security;
5. Monitoring, supervision, evaluation and reporting of implementation in the fields of food availability, food insecurity, food distribution, food reserves, diversification of consumption and food security;
6. Implementing the administration of the department of food security
7. UPTD (Technical Implementation Unit Office)
8. Implementing coordination with other relevant agencies and / or institutions in the food sector.
Describe the People and Place: Provide information that would be helpful for an outsider who has never been there and may have no context about this Place to better understand the area.
The characteristics of the tropical climate in Aceh as part of a tropical country located in the region near the equator with the average temperature between 25.7 - 28.9 degrees celsius. The potential of natural wealth in the province of Aceh is abundant, which comes from forest products, plantations, agriculture, fisheries, and mining. Community economic activities are dominant in the agriculture, plantation and forestry sectors. The staple food of the people of Aceh is rice. The side dishes that are usually eaten by the Acehnese people are very specific and taste like Indian cuisine. Savory rice is usually eaten in the morning and coffee is the tradition of drinking in Aceh.
The Aceh tribe is a native tribe and the language spoken is Acehnese, which is part of the Malay-Polynesia Malay Language family and is closely related to the Cham Language spoken in Vietnam and Cambodia. The Acehnese ancestors came from various regions; namely Arabic, Malay, Peninsular Malaysia, and India. The majority of Acehnese are Muslim and have cultural richness that is laden with Islamic values which later became the hallmark of Acehnese culture.
The Acehnese in pre-modern times lived matrilocally and communally which lived in settlements called gampong and the alliance of the villages formed mukim. Currently, Aceh Province consists of 18 districts, 5 cities, 289 sub-districts and 6,497 villages. These changes have led to changes in modernized community governance into the nation-state political governance from kingdoms and implemented rules sourced from local wisdom.
In the past, planting culturally starts since land clearing. In this case, there is an authorized traditional institution, namely Commander Uteuen which is under several other traditional structures such as Petua Seuneubôk, Keujruen Blang, Pawang Glé, and so on. The forest management system as a farming land and uses Petua Seuneubôk, means a new territory outside the village which was originally a forest. Seuneubôk land clearing always pay attention to environmental aspects so as not to have a negative impact on seuneubôk members and the environment itself. The local wisdom is also found in the prohibition of cutting down trees at a radius of about 500 meters from the edge of the lake, 200 meters from the edge of the spring and left and right of the river in the swamp area, about 100 meters from the banks of the river, about 50 meters from the edge of the tributary (alue).
Along with the ongoing climate change and the changes in the function of agricultural area, the quantity and quality of agricultural production has decreased. Improving food system governance that is more economically, socially and environmentally sustainable is expected to be the solution. Sustainable food system which encourges sustainable diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations.
What is the estimated population (current 2020) in your Place?
Challenges: Describe the current (2020) and the future (2050) challenges that your food system faces.
At present, the agriculture and fisheries sector is the sector that has the largest contribution to GRDP in Aceh. However, the growth of this sector has not been able to be maximized, causing the growth of this sector to experience fluctuations in recent years. In 2018, the contribution of this sector to Aceh's GRDP was 4.03%, this figure has decreased compared to 2017 which was 5.25%. While in 2016 decreased to 3.75% then increased in 2015 by 5.04% and again decreased in 2014 by 2.45%.
On the other hand, the Province of Aceh for more than a decade (2005-2015) was included in the top ten poorest provinces in Indonesia. The percentage of poor people in Aceh is still above the average number of poor people in Indonesia, 11.72%. Food demand or consumption will be strongly influenced by purchasing power. Meanwhile, the purchasing power of a household is largely determined by the level of income. Thus, poverty really determines the quality of household food use.
Food insecurity in Aceh Province can be seen from the high prevalence of malnutrition in 2013 which was 26.8%, while the national average was 19.6% (Ministry of Health 2014). This shows that in addition to high levels of poverty, Aceh Province is also a province that is prone to food and nutrition. Food insecurity in Aceh Province can also be seen from the amount of energy consumption consumed from some foodstuffs. Energy consumption in the people of Aceh during the period 2008-2013 still did not meet the needs set by the Minister of Health Regulation No. 75 of 2013, namely 2,150 kcal / capita / day. The average energy consumption in Aceh Province only reaches the energy needs of 1,823 kcal / capita / day (BPS 2008-2014). The calorie needs of the people of Aceh Province are still dominated by rice (50.83%), followed by oil and fat (14.32%) and processed food (11.92%). In addition to contributing to calories, rice also had the highest contribution to protein consumption, namely 30.90%, followed by processed foods (16.4%) and fish (14.42%). Energy consumption figures are one indicator that can be used to look at food security.
The issue that arose then was regarding the sustainable growth of the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors in Aceh Province.
In addition, the following are assumed to be causes of fluctuations in the growth of the agricultural sector.
1. climate change which causes disruption to the planting process and subsequently affects the output of the agricultural sector.
2. reduced agricultural land area which causes a decline in agricultural production.
3. the low factors that support the success of the planting process, such as seeds, fertilizer, labor, and irrigation.
4. disruptions to agricultural production processes that affect agricultural production, such as pests and plant diseases.
The Province of Aceh faces challenges in the future as to how to strengthen the governance of the food system by applying the principles of sustainability.
Address the Challenges: Describe how your Vision will address the challenges described in the previous question.
Our vision is to enhance food system governance through capacity building to build more sustainable food system towards food and nutrition security in Aceh.
The food system encompass the entire range of actors and their interlinked value-adding activities involved in the production, aggregation, processing, distribution, consumption and disposal of food products that originate from agriculture, forestry or fisheries, and parts of the broader economic, societal and natural environments in which they are embedded. This means that: – It is profitable throughout (economic sustainability); – It has broad-based benefits for society (social sustainability); and – It has a positive or neutral impact on the natural environment (environmental sustainability). The food system is composed of sub-systems (e.g. farming system, waste management system, input supply system, etc.) and interacts with other key systems (e.g. energy system, trade system, health system, etc.).
Adopted in 2015, the SDGs call for major transformations in agriculture and food systems in order to end hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition by 2030. Therefore the food system needs to be reshaped to be more productive, more inclusive for the poor and marginalized populations, environmentally sustainable and resilient, and able to deliver healthy and nutritious diets to all. The actions can be constructed through a set of capacity building program which involve value-adding activities involved in food system chains from the production, aggregation, processing, distribution, consumption and disposal of food products.
In order to be sustainable, the development of the food system needs to generate positive value along three dimensions simultaneously: economic, social and environmental. All of those things can be achieved by capacity building of stakeholders that involved in food system wheel, which divided into three
1.Enabling environment: is a broad social system in which people and organizations function. This includes all the rules, laws, policies, power relations and social norms that govern community involvement.
2.Organizational level: i.e. refers to internal structures, policies and procedures that determine organizational effectiveness. The better the resources and integration of these elements, the greater the potential for capacity building.
At the individual level: is the skill, experience, and knowledge that allows everyone to do what they want. Access to resources and experience that can develop individual capacities is largely shaped by the organizational and environmental factors described above, which in turn are influenced by the level of capacity development in each individual.
High Level Vision: With these challenges addressed, now provide a high level description of how the Place and the lives of its People will be different than they are now.
Due to the instability of food production and low fulfillment of calorie and nutritional intake, the vision going forward for the Government of Aceh Province is the sustainable food system governance to overcome the issue of food security and nutrient security. It is expected that in 2050 the Aceh Provincial Government hopefully can achieve the target of food and nutrition needs in accordance with FAO food security standard that is all people, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, at all times. The four pillars of food security are availability, access, utilization, and stability.
The challenges involved with building truly sustainable food system are multidimensional and interrelated. It requires a food system approach to policymaking and implementation connects elements within various policy agendas — primarily environmental, agricultural, health, trade, and industry. Such food system approach needs a coherent collaborative framework to transform food systems through a number of key activities across the food system for accelerating the transition to sustainable food system. The collaborative framework involves different stakeholders (e.g., civil society, private companies, research institutes, etc.) to implement policies and support governments in advancing a systemic transformation. The framework will facilitate the capacity building to establish more sustainable food system policies and programmes which underpinned by more robust and adaptive governance structures to handle the current complexities of food system.
The framework consists of 4 actions;
1. identify individuals or groups involved in food system,
2. conduct a holistic food system assessment,
3. initiate a multi-stakeholder process for dialogue and action, and
4. strengthen institutional capacity for long term food system governance.
Full Vision: How do you describe your Vision for a regenerative and nourishing food future for your Place and People for 2050?
The vision on the sustainable food system governance engages stakeholders of the food system actors to actively participate in decision-making and local action to promote resilient, sustainable and inclusive food systems and healthy diets—especially for vulnerable groups in cities and family/smallholder producers in rural areas. A collaborative framework approach used in the vision to promote the capacity building of the stakeholders through 4 actions;
1.identify individuals or groups involved in food system, involves (a)raise attention and advocate for the need to adopt a different approach to food and agriculture policies — a food systems approach; (b)build awareness and speak at public events to spread the message on the key benefits of systemic thinking; and (c)organize trainings on the food systems approach within and across their institutions.
2.conduct a holistic food systems assessment, involves (a)introducing and analysing food and agriculture impacts systemically, including environmental, social, health, and economic impacts, as well as clarification of the benefits of a more resilient and sustainable food system to the province, (b)analysis of policies and initiatives that directly or indirectly influence food systems, including a review of enabling conditions to implement Sustainable Food System locally and possible obstacles to overcome in the programme development and implementation process, (c)recommendations for possible priority/focus areas and policy responses which will be further discussed within the government and stakeholders’ group,(d)analysis of existing institutions within current food system.
3.establish a permanent multi-stakeholder platform and initiate a multi-stakeholder process for dialogue and action, involves (a)discuss the system assessment, (b)develop an action plan for sustainable food system, (c)select priority areas, (d)define objectives and targets, (e)select policies and interventions, and (f)approve the action plan for sustainable food system.
4.strengthen institutional capacity for long term food system governance, involves (a)create a mandated mechanism to improve institutional arrangememnts and frameworks, (b)integrate local and national sustainable food system efforts, (c)monitor progress towards sustainable food system, (d)monitoring achievements towards improved governance (the process), (e)monitoring achievements towards improved outcomes, and (f)promote training and capacity building.
Capacity building will be fostered through the establishment of learning “hubs” (and other mechanisms) that provide rural-urban institutions and relevant public and private organizations with:
1.Shared knowledge and evidence-base on food system to inform municipal and provincial strategies, policies and programmes for food security and nutrition.
2.Technical support to develop and strengthen the capacity of small-scale food actors to improve capacities in relation to production, processing, business management, marketing and access to markets and consumers through holistic advisory services.
3.Technical support to design and implement participatory governance approaches for food system planning that empower small-scale actors and promote their inclusion in the Sustainable Food System Governance vision.
4.Establish and maintain global, national and regional multi-stakeholder and multi-sectoral platforms to support the exchange of knowledge and competences between cities and local communities. This will include the development of a global repository of good practices about policies, programmes and initiatives for the Sustainable Food System Governance vision.
The challenges of food system faced by Aceh Province are weak governance of food system in Aceh which resulted in the rise and fall of agricultural products and the low fulfillment of the nutritional needs of the people of Aceh. This is due to the agricultural system that is not adaptive to climate change and the conversion of agricultural land and the reduction of labor in the agricultural sector. To overcome those challenges, the vision encourge transformation current food system through capacity building for actors in food system suplly chain to implement sustainable food system governance by which implement a system of rules, authority, and institutions that coordinate, manage, or steer the society.
An assessment adopted from the UNEP (2008) and FAO (2017) will be used to monitor and measure the achievement of the vision:
1.Percent of malnourished and/or overweight/obese people, prevalence of lifestyle and diet-related diseases such as diabetes (nutrition /consumption)
a.What is the current food and nutrition situation and how many of the food-insecure/malnourished people depend on the sector for their livelihood and/or access to food? Who represents the most affected groups?
b.What do diets look like? How do dietary preferences affect food systems outcomes?
2.Agricultural land-use statistics: food or industrial crops, abandoned farms, degraded land, etc.
a.What is the nature and extent of land use? Is there expansion or contraction of the agricultural area?
b.What is the situation regarding land degradation? How are crop yields compared to similar regions/potentially attainable yields? How is pasture land being used?
3.Agricultural water use: irrigation, water used for what per cent of crop value
a.Is water being used sustainably and efficiently in irrigation and food processing?
b.Are groundwater levels monitored? Is there potential for expansion of irrigated areas?
4.Figures on smallholder farmers and small and medium enterprise (SME) involvement in the supply chain for domestic or international markets,
a.Are smallholder systems profitable and are they included in dynamic domestic and/or international supply chains?
b.Do agriculture and food SMEs and smallholders have access to finance?
5.Dominant players in the supply chain, including formal and informal markets: inputs, producers, commodity traders, food companies, retailers
a.How are markets (food access) organized? What is the share of supermarkets and out-of-home consumption in total expenditures?
b.How much food is sold in informal wet markets?
6.Food losses in the supply chain and / or food waste
a.How much food loss and food waste occurs? Which is more prevalent?
b.What is happening to food waste, food residues, and human excreta?
7.Figures of food produced for own consumption compared to total13
a.What is the share of imported or exported food in the total food production?
b.Where is food being transported from and how?
8.Figures on use of agricultural inputs
a.Do smallholders have access to inputs (per cent women vs. per cent men)? Are inputs subsidized?
b.How do fertilizer efficiency rates compare to best practices for the region?
9.Figures on environmental pollution
a.What are the overall environmental impacts: GHG emissions, nutrient losses, pesticide emissions, soil and water quality?
10.Productivity statistics and forecasting of key commodities
a.What are key commodity forecasts?
b.Are there significant yield gaps to be highlighted?
11.Figures on agri-food sector externalities
a.What is the estimated biodiversity loss due to food production?
b.How much is being spent on health services through the treatment of non-communicable diseases resulting from food consumption habits, and those directly related to agriculture (e.g., pesticides)?
12.Figures on major trends over time (e.g., urbanization, migration, climate change)
a.What are major changes/trends (urbanization, migration, climate change, etc.) and how do they affect food systems?
b.What is the trend in diets over the last 10—20 years? What are the expectations for the future? What is the share of livestock products in diets?
In addition, identifying and evaluating existing policies and fiscal instruments that affect (directly or indirectly) food systems outcomes (positively or negatively) is a key aspect of the scoping the assessement. The assessment include the following:
1.Stock-taking of existing policies and initiatives
a.What are the main policies and related instruments that govern food systems activities?
b.What kinds of environmental regulations are in place? How are they implemented and enforced?
c.Which subsidies are in place? What is the tax regime? Are there import and export tariffs?
2.Scope of the main relevant policies
a.What are their specific policy objectives and target groups? What challenges do they address?
b.How are the different policies interlinked?
c.How do they relate to international / regional agendas or agreements?
3.Evaluation of the policy effectiveness
a.To what extent are these policy measures implemented/enforced?
b.Do those policies respond to current food systems needs?
c.To what extent do policies incorporate the five principles of the food systems approach to policy making?
d.Are input subsidies preventing the uptake of sustainable agriculture practices? Are subsidies
e.for specific crops impacting diet diversity for consumers?
4.Discussion of potential revision and measures
a.What are the actual and potential effects (positive and negative) of the different policy measures on food systems, currently and possibly in the medium to long term?
b.What are the conflicts and/or complementarities between sector objectives and environmental protection, socioeconomic/food security objectives?
c.Are there conflicts and overlaps of the prevailing policies and interventions?
d.What change is needed to reduce eventual conflicts and exploit possible synergies? How can the sector better contribute to rapidly increasing the intake of a nutritious and safe diet among those affected by food insecurity and malnutrition in the short and long terms?
Evaluate institutions and bodies that are linked to food system management related with policies, and regulations.
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