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Shifting to Bioherbicides for Food Security: Fighting Africa’s Worst Weed with Game-changing Technology Designed by/for Smallholder Farmers

We envision using an innovative industry-shifting bioherbicide technology to fight the worst weed in Africa, starting in western Kenya.

Photo of Claire Baker

Written by

Lead Applicant Organization Name

The Toothpick Company Ltd.

Lead Applicant Organization Type

  • Small company (under 50 employees)

If part of a multi-stakeholder entity (i.e. team), provide the names of other organizations and types of stakeholders collaborating with you.

LEAD PARTNERS: Welthungerhilfe (German NGO), Kenya Agriculture & Livestock Research Organization, Montana State University, Biotech Investments LLC. DISTRIBUTION CBOs, totaling 700+ members: SIAYA COUNTY - Mahap Youth for Action Gp., Charles Ogola (Individual Producer), Siaya Institute of Technology, Nyabenge Farmers Gp., Timatek Women Gp., Maseno Life Field School. VIHIGA COUNTY: Liberty Initiators Network, Community Light Women Gp., Eshiandumba Nehema Poultry Self Help Gp., Echinga Widows Self Help Gp. KAKAMEGA COUNTY - Tuamuke Emalindi Farmers, Butere Bright Stars Self Help Gp., Ekambulia Guardians Welfare Assoc., Zion Miracle Widows Gp. BUNGOMA COUNTY - Kimwanga Action Women Gp., Smart Stewer Catering Self Help Gp., Tulienge Farmers Abe Center, Makutano Women Gp., Biamu Women Gp., Umoja B Self Help Gp. In 2017 we held a stakeholders meeting with 40 attendees including Kenya’s three biggest seed companies, FIPS-Africa, the Weizmann Inst, AATF, NGOs, and government agencies.

Website of Legally Registered Entity

https://www.toothpickproject.org/pilot-project

How long have you / your team been working on this Vision?

  • 3-10 years

Lead Applicant: In what city or town are you located?

Kakamega

Lead Applicant: In what country are you located?

Kenya

Your Selected Place: what’s the name of the Place you’re developing a Vision for?

Bungoma, Kakamega, Vihiga, Kisumu, and Siaya Counties (2019 population totals 6,276,919 people, 52% women and 48% men).

What country is your selected Place located in?

Kenya

Describe your relationship to the place you’ve selected.

Our vision is one shared across three continents – with a focus on a Place with intense Striga weed infestation. 

Our History: In 2006, there was an unlikely connection made by a volunteer US doctor in Maseno, Kenya. After seeing patient after patient suffering from malnutrition, he wanted to get to the root of the problem. He asked his friend, Kenyan agronomist Florence Oyosi, to explain the cause of malnutrition to him. She showed him that their evil villain, the pretty parasitic Striga weed, was sucking all the life out of their maize. The doctor’s brother happened to be a world-renowned plant pathologist who had developed a way to use plant disease to protect crops. The brother, Dr. David Sands at Montana State University, traveled to Kenya, found Fusarium oxysporum wilt on diseased Striga weeds, and collaborated with a team of researchers at the Kenya Agriculture & Livestock Research Organization. The team isolated and selected the local strains of the fungus that would kill the weed. Then, with the community-based women’s agricultural group, Liberty Initiators Network, we tested distribution systems for smallholder farmers, led by Oyosi.

Trials were conducted for seven years, including Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded proof-of-concept trials on 500 farms for two seasons in 2014-2015. The technology was successful (paired-plot tests showed an increase of crop yield from 42-56% when using the treatment compared to the control). At this point our research was noticed by a German scientist and specialist in fungi manufacturing. He joined the team and brought Welthungerhilfe, the large German hunger NGO with a large Kenyan team and farmer groups.

Birthed from Kenya, the US, and Germany, in 2018 we created the Toothpick Company Ltd., a social enterprise based in Kakamega, Kenya. The goal of this organization is to take all the skills and efforts of the last decade and put them into sustainable action in a Place with a tremendous desire for a solution.

Describe the People and Place: Provide information that would be helpful for an outsider who has never been there and may have no context about this Place to better understand the area.

We are focusing on the smallholder maize farmers in five counties in western Kenya. Smallholders in Kenya typically have under one hectare of land and grow maize and several other crops (legumes, possibly a mango or avocado tree, maybe sweet potatoes). Maize is the preferred staple crop in Kenya (58% of all crops). Under 10% of farmers use mechanization. Families average 2-3 livestock (chickens, cow) and farmers with Striga have an even lower livestock count. Under 5% of the land is irrigated. The farms are primarily worked by family labor rather than hired labor. Frequently neighbors/families will plant fields together, rotating through their fields to get the job done efficiently. In western Kenya it is estimated that over 20% of cropland is Striga-infested.

Climate change presents environmental challenges with unpredictable rains/drought. For example, farmers usually plant with the rains in February. This year it rained once - some farmers planted. Most farmers waited until the second rain...which didn't come until April. Planting delays cause distress related to food storage and food supply into this hunger season.

Our customers are categorized as poor/very poor. According to FAO (2015), Kenyan smallholder farmers average $1.4/day per person. Though we don't have specific references, we know that farmers with Striga are often the poorest of smallholder farmers due to annual pre-harvest crop loss. We even heard of one large ag extension NGO that doesn't really work with farmers with Striga-infested fields because, without a viable solution, it is a poor investment of the NGO resources.

It is reported that 85% of Kenyan maize farmers are women. Therefore, Striga weed is a gender-sensitive food security issue. Striga can also be associated to education: In our informal surveys, when we ask a farmer what she'd do if she earned income from her field, 100% of the farmers have said they'd pay school fees (tuition, uniforms, books) for their children. Additionally, malnutrition related to Striga crop-loss can have a negative impact on nutrition-related diseases such as malaria and HIV-AIDS. Farmers with less Striga tend to diversify with more nutritious crops.

75% of Kenyas rely on agriculture for all or part of their income. Population is rising, yet fewer youth are taking up farming due to a lack of inherited land, a lack of agricultural economic productivity, an unstable cereal market, low extension support, and to land being deserted due to Striga.

Our pilot company is based in Kakamega, Kenya. Striga is mostly devastating in Western Kenya. However, there have been reports of Striga starting to show up in fields in other regions.

Despite the dire situation related to Striga, malnutrition, and erratic weather related to climate change, the attitude also seems to be hopeful. After our first season of trials on 500 farms, 382 neighboring farmers signed up to be on the trial waiting list...hopeful that they'd have the opportunity to restore their farms.

What is the approximate size of your Place, in square kilometers? (New question, not required)

10249

What is the estimated population (current 2020) in your Place?

6276919

Challenges: Describe the current (2020) and the future (2050) challenges that your food system faces.

Striga (witchweed) is an increasingly destructive invasive parasitic weed on 40 million farms, affecting 300 million people, across sub-Saharan Africa. Attacking the roots of crops like maize, sorghum, millet, cowpea and upland rice, it depletes crop yield by up to 100%, resulting in a lack of sustenance (cereals provide 46% of calories) and income for farmers. Up to 50 million hectares of African croplands show Striga infestation, causing $9 billion in crop loss annually. Striga is considered the worst pest threat in African food security. Western Kenya has a high infestation rate with Striga is on over 217,000 hectares. 

Some Striga-management technologies exist but, they haven’t been widely adopted by farmers due to mismatches between technologies, socio-economic conditions, effectiveness, and availability. Weeding by hand or by chemical herbicides is too late to reverse damage. Imazapyr-coated hybrid maize seeds present concerns about toxicity (the company distributes it with gloves for the farmers) and has a very low germination rate (poor storage stability). Striga-tolerant crop cultivars, push-pull methodology, and improving soil fertility can improve crop yield but don’t restore full yield or address the soil’s Striga seed bank. Costs often exceed farmers’ economic means. 

Our Integrated Pest Management Approach:  Inspecting and identifying; Preventing with agronomic methods; Calculating economic value of inputs (hybrid seed, fertilizer, herbicide/bioherbicide, Fall Armyworm treatment, etc.); Employing tactics - combinations of approaches; Measuring impacts.

What happens if a farmer loses half their crop to Striga? Subsistence farmers are primarily growing for their family’s food. Surplus can be sold for income – to spend on education for their children, medicine, and farm inputs. No surplus means that these things must be sacrificed. The impact runs deeply: forfeiting education, particularly for girls, has been linked to younger maternal age, more children, and population growth. Farmers with heavy infestation of Striga sometimes desert their land. Farmers also have challenges storing their maize throughout the season, requiring them to sell at harvest when the price is low and then purchasing at the end of the hunger season when the price is significantly higher. Nutrition is also an issue – maize provides caloric intake but provides little nutrients or protein. If a farmer can productively grow more maize on less land, they can diversify their farm and grow more nutritious crops. 

Kenyan farmers are on the front line of climate changeGlobal climate models show the severity of both flooding and drought increasing through 2100. This challenges farmers and their understanding of agronomic best practices. Additionally, Striga is hearty and thrives in poor soil and drought – persisting as climate changes. The UNDP estimates that if a child in Kenya is born in a drought year, the likelihood of them being malnourished increases by up to 50%. 

Address the Challenges: Describe how your Vision will address the challenges described in the previous question.

Our vision is to approach a biological problem with a biological solution. It sounds simple, doesn’t it? In reality, this isn’t how the pest control world works. Today’s agriculture systems are dominated by chemical applications. But, we have a bio-herbicide solution – one of the first in the world.

Developed by Prof. David Sands at Montana State University, our technology uses local Kenyan fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, and selects three strains with enhanced virulence (they over-produce specific amino acids tyrosine, leucine and methionine) to kill Striga but not maize. It is host-specific and harmless to people and soil fauna. The resulting product is called FoxyT14 (trademarked in Kenya as Kichawi Kill).

FoxyT14 is a groundbreaking approach to Striga management. Grown on toothpicks (wood slices), the FoxyT14 fungal strains can be stored and delivered at low cost. At village-level, a producer places the fungi-coated toothpick in a locally sourced substrate (rice in an ethanol-swabbed, sterile, lidded container), agitating twice a day for three days. The farmer then adds 1.5 grams (a pinch) of the inoculated substrate per each crop seed planting hole.

In 2014-15, FoxyT14 was tested in paired plots on 500 smallholder farms in Kenya, showing an increase in maize yield by 42-56% (Gates Foundation Grand Challenges Exploration). FIPS-Africa conducted independent trials and saw yield increase of 35-85%. Regulatory 3rd-party trials' yields increased from 35-300%.

Our distribution system stimulates the economy at the village-level through certified Village-Based Inoculum ProducersEach Producer manufactures and distributes the rice inoculum for their farmer network. In 2020 (our 1st year of distribution), we will have 80 Producers, each distributing to 50 farmers (serving a total of 4,000 farmers). We currently have three full time Kenyan employees. In 2019, we had 419 demonstration plots in four counties, with 800 farmers attending organized field-days. We have three other distribution paths we’ll be testing in 2020-2021. One is a pop-up store where farmers can order their inoculum and pick it up along with other inputs like seeds and fertilizers. The second – which has the potential to reach a large number of farmers – is to work within existing farm input NGO systems. We’ll modify our Village-level production to fit within their structures, adding FoxyT14 to their services and allowing their farmers to achieve more success, enabling these farmers to benefit from the other services the NGOs provide such as more nutritious crops, fertilizer systems, irrigation, etc. The third is a fungi-coated maize seed (in development).

With a focus on women-based CBOs, we have engaged 20 CBO partners with a total of 700+ members, and trained 120 Ministry of Agriculture agentsIn addition, scientists from 12 countries have been trained in virulence-enhancement selection technology, creating a research team to expand use to other crops and geographies.

High Level Vision: With these challenges addressed, now provide a high level description of how the Place and the lives of its People will be different than they are now.

There is a concern of a global scope. Chemical management systems are currently the leading solution for pest control. However, the industry is struggling: pests are increasingly resistant to the chemicals (there are super-weeds, like antibiotic-resistant super-bugs). Farmers and consumers are concerned about potential toxins on their food and in the environment. We envision a shift in pest management, mobilizing safer, more effective biological technology. We envision a biological solution for a biological problem.

Benefits to using virulence-enhanced Fusarium:

Host-specific – won’t harm other plants outside the target weed and the is no indication of host- jumping

Non-toxic (we aren’t replacing one bad product with another). Safe for farmers, consumers, and soils and water systems

• Synthetic products are losing consumer confidence (some banned in EU, Africa, etc.)

• Synthetic products are developing weed resistance

• Potentially a very competitive price

• They are self-replenishing (not diluted after application)

Product development is less expensive than synthetic development

Potential Cons to using virulence-enhanced Fusarium:

Host-specific – while also a positive attribute, a different Fusarium strain would have to be selected for every weed variety (unlike Glyphosate or other chemicals that will kill everything in the field)

Bio Intellectual Property is difficult to protect (if that is a priority)

• The competitive chemical input industry is huge and powerful

Researcher pool advancing this technology is small

The pros win! This must be invested in. Farmers have been waiting for years to reclaim their farms from the tight grip of Striga. Removing the irascible barrier will have tremendous impacts - all interconnected: growing enough maize to sustain the family; growing surplus to sell; using profits to invest in better farm inputs, medicine, and education; reclaim land previously deserted due to Striga; and diversify crops for better nutrition.

Full Vision: How do you describe your Vision for a regenerative and nourishing food future for your Place and People for 2050?

We strongly believe that an effective solution has to be multi-faceted. Everything is inextricably connected. Our vision addresses all six interconnected themes. However, for clarity, we are separating them out in these explanations: 

The People and Culture: Striga is a gender-sensitive food security issue because the vast majority of maize farmers are women (85% in western Kenya). However, there is a gender gap in technology adoption. Our technology delivery system, using a cooked rice substrate, was developed by and with women agronomists, understanding and capitalizing on gendered skills and societal constraints. Women are interconnected with economy: there are many studies that identify women as a more reliable and responsible custodian of investments. 

Diets and Culture: When talking about culture, what is more essential than food? This is also an important question to address. Maize is the primary food source for western Kenya. However, it really isn’t a nutritious crop and doesn’t offer sufficient vitamins, nutrients, or proteins. Rather than forcing farmers to shift their entire food culture to a crop not impacted by Striga, we are working for a solution that maintains the culture of food, providing room for farmer choice. If farmers can restore their crop yield, they’ll be able to grow the maize they need and re-dedicate some land for more nutritious and valuable crops that can also benefit soil ecosystems. We’ve found that this regenerative concept jives with the strategies of NGOs, CBOs, and the Ministry of Agriculture. 

Environment: Currently, the leading Striga management product on the market is Imazapyr-coated maize seed. This product can kill Striga. However, it is distributed to farmers with gloves and farmers are expected to wash their hands after planting. This is an example of technology that was not developed for the consumer. In addition to potential toxicity, there is concern that Imazapyr can kill other crops that are not specifically bred to be Imazapyr-resistant. There are long-term implications of chemical herbicides on soil, water, flora and fauna. For example, RoundUp (glyphosate) was introduced in the 1970s. Today, there are over two dozen weeds that have developed resistance to glyphosate. Similar to the crisis we are seeing with anti-biotic resistance and super-bugs, the chemical approach to weed management is showing dire consequences. Our technology is a human-centered delivery design that uses fungi that is already in the field - sourced locally. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae has been tested (Virginia Tech and U. of Nairobi) and no known fusaria toxins have been found. As it has throughout history, Fusarium oxysporum persists in the local soil. This means that there is a longterm benefit to our treatment: in plots we treated for five years (2008-2013 and not since), our scientist couldn't get Striga to grow even with seed...and five years later, there is still no Striga. We haven't conducted longitudinal studies to determine the persistence factors, but not having to add a treatment every year forever is a very positive environmental and economical prospect. 

Economics: We have two economic impacts in our vision. First, our goal is for farmers to reduce crop loss. Across Africa, Striga is responsible for $9 billion in crop loss annually. We are starting in western Kenya where Striga is on 217,000 hectares with 20-100% crop loss – off of the tables of farmers and their families. If a farmer can increase her crop yield by 35%, (eg. going from nine to twelve 90kg bags), she'll be able to calculate a good return on her investment. Our current product price is based on the rice substrate (our team is actively researching less expensive alternatives to rice substrate). Beyond the initial price for our technology with the rice substrate, we can also consider a farmer's cost as they reduce treatment over the seasons, boosting its appeal to farmers. 

Our second goal is to boost village economies with a network of microbusiness agriprenuers. Employment is an important concern in a country where the workforce is expected to almost double in the next decade. Youth are migrating to urban areas and rural farming isn’t viewed as “sexy” or lucrative. However, if these youth can tap into a new industry and receive the production certification as well as training in business management skills, we envision a very positive impact on both farming and village economy. 

Technology: The global biocontrol industry is $34 billion/year. The herbicide industry is over 99.9% chemical control products. There have been other attempts using fungi in bio-herbicide applications. However, they haven’t been successful enough for practical use because the biological systems know better than to kill their host. Our technology selects for outlier spores selected off of locally-sourced wilted weeds. This virulence-enhanced selection technology is the key to successful biocontrol. Why launch this technology in Africa? We have to start some place. We strongly believe bioherbicides will develop into a robust way to control weeds globally. We are launching on farms that have no other choice or hope. And, we are starting with farm systems that aren’t already betrothed to production agriculture trends (chemical inputs, precision mechanization, etc.). And we are starting with a crisis. 

Policy: The biggest hurdle we’ve encountered is the registration process. We are forging a new path with very few other bioherbicide products to lead the way. And, due to regulations – particularly regulations like the Nagoya protocol (restricting the transfer of pathogens across country borders) – we’ll launch in Kenya and then start all over again in every country (isolating and selecting local strains, conducting regulatory trials, and in-country registration). There are good reasons to implement restrictions…but it is also cumbersome. We have been selected to be a part of a grant proposal to the World Trade Organization to look at harmonization of biocontrol registration within trade regions in Africa. Our Kenya launch will serve as a potential model for future biocontrol policy globally.

VISION:

We'd like to celebrate that this is a vision prize, not a modify-something-to-make-it-a-little-better prize. This is a ditch-the-status-quo prize. We envision a shift in the entire agriculture industry. We will undoubtedly get push-back from the dominant chemical industry. But we also know that the major chemical companies are aware of our innovation and keeping a keen eye on our progress. We are extremely excited to have built a strong team with a push for Public Private Partnerships. We are also excited that this launch is in Kenya, where farmers are in line to try our technology - giving hope that this will be a solution suited to them and successful. We are starting with farm systems that aren’t already betrothed to production agriculture trends (chemical inputs, precision mechanization, etc.). And we are starting with farmers who are empowered to be the front line of a movement. 

How did you hear about the Food System Vision Prize?

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Team (6)

Claire's profile
Heinz's profile
Heinz Peters

Role added on team:

"Welthungerhilfe"

Samson's profile
Samson Nduguti

Role added on team:

"Manager, Sales and Marketing, of Toothpick Company Ltd. Samson brings years of experience in agri-business. Located in Kakamega, Kenya."

David's profile
David Sands

Role added on team:

"Lead scientist, professor and researcher at Montana State University, co-founder. Sands is a world renowned expert in biotechnology, plant pathology, and biocontrol. He invented "virulence enhancement of fungi," the technology launched in this project."

Henry's profile
Henry Nzioki

Role added on team:

"Project Lead Scientist and Lab Director, Kenya Agriculture & Livestock Research Organization. Henry "Sila" has been working on this project for 10 years - working in collaboration with Montana State University to isolate the fungi strains, conduct pot/field trials, and coordinate the registration process. He continues to lead scientific processes, including manufacturing the primary inoculum, check efficacy, and make improvements to the delivery system (eg. substrates, thiram resistance, etc.)."

Thome's profile
Thome Josephine

Role added on team:

"Josephine is the project lead for Welthungerhilfe Kenya. She represents WHH on the Toothpick Company Limited's Board of Directors."

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Attachments (4)

Biocontrol References.pdf

Here are some links to biocontrol and Striga peer reviewed papers.

3 minute Toothpick promo.pptx

This is a quick powerpoint to walk through our process. The second slide is a video of one of our farmer's fields. If you've never seen a Striga field before, we encourage you to walk through Patricia's field...your heart will race. Imagine that field 40 million times.

Map graphic #1 pest threat.png

This map shows the spread and intensity of Striga (map based on image published in: Ejeta, G. & Gressel J. (eds) (2007): Integrating New Technologies for Striga Control. Towards Ending the Witch-hunt. World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd.)

Frontiers Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick 2016.pdf

Peer reviewed paper on the Kenya Proof of Concept. 500 farms, two seasons, paired plot trials. Funded by a Gates Foundation Grand Challenges Exploration grant.

10 comments

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Spam
Photo of Archiebold Manasseh
Team

Very innovative Project all the best......

Spam
Photo of Hamish Dunsford
Team

Hi Claire,
Certainly an interesting vision you present, and I enjoyed reading the back and forth between yourself and Paul in the comments also. As variations of fusarium can be quite dangerous to other crops (up to 100% losses), I'm interested to know if you can provide any more detail on the host-specific nature of that which you present here? Do you have some evidence of that you could share?
Thanks, and good luck!
Hamish

Spam
Photo of Claire Baker
Team

Really great question, Hamish Dunsford  !

Yes - there is evidence of host specificity (I'm compiling a list of papers that we'll eventually post on our website). We are very grateful that Dr. John Leslie, director of the Fusarium Lab at Kansas State University, is part of our team. In fact, he'll be training our international team in France in March. His book is the premier manual on Fusarium...and there is a specific chapter on the unique qualities of Fusarium Oxysporum (one of about 70 kinds of fusaria). https://www.wiley.com/en-us/The+Fusarium+Laboratory+Manual-p-9780813819198

We have also worked with Dr. David Geiser from Penn State Fusarium Lab. Additionally, we are having our strains' genome mapped by Dr. Like Fokkens at the University of Amsterdam, UVA. The gene mapping is early - there isn't a lot to compare our strains to right now. But, as more Fusarium are mapped, we'll be able to identify markers that will help clarify host specificity. Once this is done, we'll have a better idea of horizontal gene transfer to other vegetative compatibility groups.

Things We Know:
- Fusarium oxysporum is a group of plant pathogenic (and saprophytic) fungi that can be identified by their spore type and growth on selective media and on certain diagnostic media (by trained plant pathologists).
- These fungi are wide ranging and attack a large number of plants (weeds of crops).
- Each forma speciales of Fusarium attacks a single species of plant (hence highly host specific).
- The fungi can exist for long periods of time as chlamydospores in the soil.The spores can germinate in the presence of non-host plant roots and replenish their population with a new cycle of chlamydospores.
- These fungi (unlike other fusaria), do not produce toxins, but this has to be tested by an independent tocicology lab for verification (we've tested our strains for fusaria toxins at both Virginia Tech and University of Nairobi...none were identified). These are wilt fungi (they cause wilt of plants by clogging the vascular tissue of their host plant).

Current Unknowns:
- Gene markers for f.sp. strigae are not yet known (nor are they known for other f.sp....this is budding research). We are working with Dr. Like Fokkens to map our strains' genomes - she would compare our DNA alignments with other Fusaria alignments.
- The registration procedure for biological controls is slow. There are steps in place to speed up the regulatory policies...but it could be years before we see change.
- It is unknown if the Striga in other sub-saharan countries will be susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum in all countries. This is why we are working locally. 
- We do not know of a more promising control of Striga than this fungus.
- We do not know of the long term survival of this fungus in various soils. Time will tell...it requires years/decades of data (there are papers showing it can stay in the soil for at least 30 years, which is an exciting consideration for weed management).

Things to do related to biocontrol more broadly than this Vision Prize in western Kenya:
1) Analyze genome sequences of different Striga-infecting isolates and compare them with Fusarium oxysporum strains that are not pathogenic or that infect other hosts to assess any risk of jumping from Striga to crops that are grown in the targeted areas.
2) Search for marker genes found in successful Striga-colonizers and use those to screen local Fusarium oxysporum strains for possible biocontrols. In this way we can try and manage the disease without introducing completely new microbes. This search can also provide us with information on Fusarium oxysporum population structure in the targeted areas.

There is more on this specificity in this paper: Host specificity of Fusarium oxysporum Schlect (isolate PSM 197), a potential mycoherbicide for controlling Striga spp. in West Africa. PS MARLEY, J KROSCHEL, A ELZIEN (https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2005.00482.x). Marley's strains were effective on two kinds of Striga but saw a diminishing ability on a very closely-related host (Alectra). It is noted that for strains to jump to an entirely different plant feels very rare in the case of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., and we really don't understand the timeframe of a jump between Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica (100 years vs. 1,000 years vs. a million years?). There is evidence of horizontal gene transfer in almost everything if you go back far enough.  

Again, thank you for the thoughtful question, Hamish. Host specificity is an exciting component of biocontrol. It can be considered a weakness: unlike a blanket application like glyphosate that will kill all plants in contact, we have to go after one weed at a time. But, we feel that one weed at a time is a more ecological and safer approach than carpet bombing. 

Regards,Claire

Spam
Photo of Itika Gupta
Team

Hi Claire Baker  Great to see you joining the Prize!
We noticed your submission is currently unpublished.
The Early Submission Deadline is almost there. Publish your Vision by 5:00pm EST on December 5, 2019 and have the opportunity to attend an invitation-only webinar with members of The Rockefeller Foundation’s Food team, the Sponsors of this Prize.
You can publish it by hitting the "Publish" button at the top of your facepost. You can also update your Vision at any time before 31 January 2020 by clicking on the "Edit Contribution" on top.
We're looking forward to seeing your submission in this Prize.

Spam
Photo of Claire Baker
Team

Itika Gupta Is there a way to use line breaks in the narrative? It is hard to read such large blocks of text. Thanks!

Spam
Photo of Paul Woomer
Team

I reply briefly to Clare Baker. Striga is a massive constraint to maize-based cropping systems in much of Africa, and maize does not respond to other production inputs when it is infested by this plant parasite. I have lived and worked in Africa for the past 30 years, directing some of my attention to striga management when possible, and for the first time the eradication of striga from smallholder croplands is feasible, so I am excited to see this submission. I worked with the team that promoted integrated striga management in west Kenya and we enjoyed success in that we reported its first successful elimination. But at the same time some of the recent statements by Clare must be corrected. First, Imazapyr herbicide has low mammalian toxicity. Gloves were distributed with IR maize at the insistence of BASF more as a sales gimmick than a needed precaution. But the insecticides already applied to maize seed to reduce cut worm and discourage birds are toxic to humans, far more so than Imazapyr. Some farmers actually put maize seed in their mouths and spit the seed into the planting hole, and this practice is far more dangerous than planting seed without gloves. Next, using IR maize has little effect on companion legume intercrops unless the two crops are together planted in the same hole (something almost never done). There is no effect from planting alternate maize-legume rows. Legumes are important in this system because their root exudates induce suicidal germination of dormant striga seeds in the soil, and destroying the massive seed bank is critical to eradicating the parasite from cropland. Yes, IR maize seed expresses poor germination, especially when it is coated too early, or stored too long, and failure to satisfy KEPHIS germination requirements (>92% I believe) has discouraged some seed companies from including it in their product lines. Finally, my concerns over farmers-own rice based inoculant production remain,because if a farmer plants 44,000 plants per ha, and needs 2 grams of rice per plant, then 88 kg of cooked rice is required. Furthermore, this rice is needed at a time of year when food reserves may be limited. I do not understand why a more conventional inoculant intended for seed coating at rates of 500 g per ha is not being produced and marketed through agrodealer networks.

Spam
Photo of Claire Baker
Team

Paul Woomer - Thanks for the clarification on IR Maize! I'm glad to hear there haven't been issues with legume companions because that is a practice we (and most farmer NGOs) encourage. BASF's marketing approach is an interesting one...especially at a time when concerns are growing about chemical exposure. It will be hard for them to change that story now that they started it.

I'm going to look into the legume impact on the seed bank because I don't know much about the relationship. I know there is a team funded by the Gates Foundation to look for strigalactone hormones. Their press release said they didn't anticipate having a practical application until around 2027.

We are working hard on a rice replacement (possibly a rice combo, or even better, a non-food substrate like banana stalk). This is part of our agenda for our science team meeting in March (researchers from 12 countries...including IITA-Zambia). Coated seed is also on the agenda.

Our greatest limiting factor is regulation and registration. Pest Control Products Board and KEPHIS have strict requirements and so the earliest I can envision having a new product (coated seed) approved for market is in probably 3 years. The advantage our current product has over a coated seed is that the farmer is placing a live, active inoculum in the soil...Striga strikes within 72 hours of planting the maize so we think the speed of a "live, active" component is important. Farmers also have the flexibility to use a range of seeds, including saved seed.

Thanks for your encouragement, Paul. I've ready your work and really appreciate your Striga efforts!

Spam
Photo of Paul Woomer
Team

Claire Baker. I agree that striga poses a great challenge to food security in Africa and contend that it must be eliminated by 2050. The toothpick approach you advocate can be an important component of integrated eradication but it is not presented within that context. Instead, you dismiss the IR maize technology, that we find to be extremely effective, for seemingly superficial reasons. Also, if one must incubate the bio-agent toothpicks with rice, and then apply that rice as inoculant to each of 44,000 maize planting stations (holes) per ha, how much rice is required? Are we able to propagate the bioagent in maize meal instead? Finally, maize seed often is treated with thiram fungicide to prevent damping off, does this affect the inoculant?

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Paul Woomer  - 
These are great points and I appreciate the opportunity to address them within the proposal (edits will come over the next few weeks)!

First, there are 40 million farms with Striga across sub-Saharan Arica. This means that yes, there is ample room for more than one solution available to farmers. They should be able to choose (or combine) IR Maize, Kichawi Kill (FoxyT14), or any other solutions that emerge in the next thirty years. There is room for all of us. We strongly advocate for an integrated approach which I'll make sure to address within the proposal. No Striga solutions are a silver bullet and we recommend farmers fight Striga with everything available to them - especially the best seeds they can afford and a soil fertility plan (both show a partial restoration of crop yield).

Secondly, I'd like to address some pros/cons of IR Maize. IR Maize has shown a good increase in crop yield and is a strong option for some agro-situations. Kichawi Kill (FoxyT14) and IR Maize are a comparable price, with similar yield increases (last week we received the results of our final regulatory trials and should have a report out soon).

I don't think the downsides of IR Maize are superficial, though I didn't want to spell them out within our proposal. First of all, IR Maize is distributed with gloves because it is toxic. Gloves could be a fine solution to protect farmers. However, in western Kenya, a farmer doesn't just put on her gloves, plant, and discard her gloves. Farmers tend to plant in groups with family and neighbors - moving from farm to farm over the planting season based on the rains. Does the farmer reuse these gloves for each planting? This isn't a strong cultural plan. I anticipate that as more farmers implement mechanization like jab planters, IR Maize will become an even stronger option.

For those who don't know, IR Maize is maize seed bred to be resistant to imazapyr so that it can be coated with the protective chemical. However, if a farmer is intercropping with legumes, does the imazapyr damage the legume? What about non-maize crops planted in that soil the next season? I don't know the answer to this...but I have heard this concern from farmers. I'm guessing AATF could shed some light on whether this is a legitimate concern.

Each Striga plant can deposit 50,000-500,000 seeds in the soil every season and they can sit dormant for decades. I'm not sure how IR Maize tackles this Striga seed bank in the soil. Kichawi Kill stimulates those seeds' germination to help deplete the seed bank.

We've used IR Maize in our regulatory trials as well as other recommended hybrid maize seeds. Results have been comparable - which is excellent news for farmers. However, in our most recent season, the IR Maize had very poor germination rates. Perhaps there is a shelf-life issue (I think they were seeds from the previous season - 6 months old).

The big elephant in the room is what has been happening with chemical herbicides. RoundUp (glyphosate) was introduced in the early 1970s. Since that time, there are now over two dozen weeds that have become resistant to glyphosate. Herbicide resistance is a very real concern that should be considered in any application. Can Striga become resistant to Kichawi Kill? Of course...and this is why we are using three different strains. This is why we will introduce strain variations. We'll make speed bumps for Striga adaptation. I'm not sure what IR Maize is doing to prevent herbicide resistance.

Your comment about thiram fungicide is a good one. We source and make available to our farmers uncoated seeds (Western Seed, Seedco, etc.). Our scientist at KALRO is currently developing Foxy T14 strains resistant to thiram. We are also developing strains resistant to copper sulfate fungicide because it is used as a maize seed coating fungicide by organic farmers. We'll have more coming out about this in the next year.

Regarding your comment on rice as our substrate, you are exactly on point! The greatest expense in our product is the substrate and we've been testing alternatives that are less expensive than rice. Our PCPB regulatory trials included plots with a gritted maize cob substrate (amended with nutrients). Gritted cob worked well, but the yield results weren't quite as good as rice and we'd need to set up an additional manufacturing system. We have decided that are at a point where we need to commercialize with an existing innovation now and then focus on identifying a locally-sourced less expensive substrate in the coming years. We are also looking at treating seeds with the fungi - a new approach that will serve a broader agronomic market (working easily within mechanization systems).

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Lastly, I'd like to celebrate that this is a vision prize, not a modify-something-to-make-it-a-little-better prize. This is a ditch-the-status-quo prize. We envision a shift in the entire agriculture industry. We will undoubtedly get push-back from the dominant chemical industry. But we also know that the major chemical companies are aware of our innovation and keeping a keen eye on our progress. We are extremely excited to have built a strong team with a push for Public Private Partnerships. We are also excited that this launch is in Kenya, where farmers are in line to try our technology - giving hope that this will be a solution suited to them and successful. We are starting with farm systems that aren’t already betrothed to production agriculture trends (chemical inputs, precision mechanization, etc.). And we are starting with farmers who are empowered to be the front line of a movement.

Again, I really appreciate the feedback and this process!