Makassar – Coastal City Food System, a Vision for Sustainable Nutrition 2050
Multistakeholders collaboration to develop Innovative policies and community and market-oriented solutions in accessing food sustainably
Sustainable and inclusive city region food system
Lead Applicant Organization Name
Lead Applicant Organization Type
Large NGO (over 50 employees)
Website of Legally Registered Entity
How long have you / your team been working on this Vision?
Lead Applicant: In what city or town are you located?
Lead Applicant: In what country are you located?
Your Selected Place: what’s the name of the Place you’re developing a Vision for?
Makassar, a coastal city in Indonesia covers 175.77 km^2 area
What country is your selected Place located in?
Describe your relationship to the place you’ve selected.
Makassar was chosen as a place to implement the vision are because several reasons;
1. Makassar is one of the big cities in Indonesia in term of population, with growing rate of 1.32% in average per year, predicted in 2050, population would be approximately 2,7 Million from 1.7 million people in 2019.
2. Makassar is a coastal city and pretty much depends on the sea economy and activities. Makassar is predicted to have less area for growing their own food started 2025 because of massive changing from productive land to house infrastructures – means that Makassarian will depends to imported supply for their nutrition needs.
3. Stunting rate around 11% in 2018 and on the other side at least one person from five persons is with obesity.
4. Makassar predicted will be severe on increasing of temperature in average 0.29oC to 0.39oC per decades, and in 2050 it predicted average temperature will be around nearly 28oC to 32oC, this will be affected the ecosystem in land and sea of Makassar.
Hivos implemented many projects in Makassar in renewable energy, in the last ten years within Makassar areas we built and installed 2,731 biogases for household that helps the community to produce their own gas and its waste can be used natural fertilizers. Hivos projects office reside in Makassar from 2011 and still working in Makassar to bring renewable energy awareness and implementation to the people till now. We have strong connection with the people, the community and the local officer, we understand what they are dreaming for and what is the goal they want to reach as a community.
Describe the People and Place: Provide information that would be helpful for an outsider who has never been there and may have no context about this Place to better understand the area.
Aerial Image of Makassar
Makassar is a coastal city located at the bay of Makassar strait in the southern part of Sulawesi Island has a flat topography with a land slope of 0-2° and bit hilly going to the north side with land slope of 3-15°. Makassar City has moderate to tropical climates with average temperatures ranging from 26 ° C to 29 ° C. The population on 2018 are 1,769,920 with density around 8,580 people/km2, which make Makassar is the fifth biggest city in Indonesia.
6 major ethnics live and interact in Makassar namely Bugis, Toraja, Mandar, Buton, Jawa and Tionghoa. Rich with cultural traditions from diet, dance, languages and way of living. Makassarian speak Indonesian language as the National language and followed by their local dialect. There are 8 local dialects commonly spoken among ethics in Makassar areas.
In average Makassar average dietary pattern, characterized by extreme dependence on a single staple and low consumption of meat and fat. The highest energy intake shares from grains specifically rice. The share of non-starchy foods in total dietary energy consumption is 30 percent. Protein sourced are varied, and include fish as well as a diversity of high-protein soy products such as tofu and tempeh, Meat and dairy consumption are low depends on the income of the citizens. Consumption of the fruits and vegetables is low as well as fat and oils. In addition, with many fast food stall and easy to access food thanks to modern technology, the younger generations are much more into “western” food such as burgers, fried chicken and so on. The improvement of media access and technology users also shifting the culinary preferred in daily life.
Makassar only cultivated 3,652 Ha of land which divided into 1,016 Ha for dry fields, arable lands, and garden meanwhile 2,636 Ha is for rice cultivation. Main crops cultivated by farmers in Makassar are Paddy Rice that planted during the rainy season. Usually paddy rice is cultivated for own consumption and trading. Chilly is the main vegetables produced by Makassarian with 1944 tons produced in 2018. In the aquaculture, in 2018 production of fish capture are 13,525 tons meanwhile, brackish water ponds and fresh water ponds produce around 627 Tons and 478 Tons respectively. Fish captured is not only for the city consumption but also exported to other province. Compare to fish, Makassar need to import vegetables, rice and fruits from other areas because the cultivation areas are not sufficient enough to fulfill everybody’s demand on nutrition source
What is the approximate size of your Place, in square kilometers? (New question, not required)
What is the estimated population (current 2020) in your Place?
Challenges: Describe the current (2020) and the future (2050) challenges that your food system faces.
The Mayor of Makassar says “Food security must indeed be discussed from the village level to the city level, on its availability, accessibility, price range, area coverage, income per capita are sufficient to produce food" (Iqbal Suhaeb, Mayor of Makkasar City).
From the challenges mapping on the theme. We see that the biggest challenges are coming from the implementation on the regulation related to food system. We found that no multistakeholder Integrated planning on food system in the city level, lack of knowledge on how to start and developed coastal city food system, and Policy implementation for land use appliances is not strictly applied.
In the last decade in Makassar area, land use changing over the years. Nowadays, 50% areas are for household infrastructure, this due to increasing rate of population caused by migration and birth rate. One challenges we found is, some of the plan on the sanitation and water ways was not implement correctly and resulted Makassar is heavily severe of flooding. This is will worsen when it comes with heavy rain and high tidal, which sometimes takes days for the flood receded.
Another challenge that faced on the food system would be related to climate temperature raised 0.27oC yearly in average for Makassar areas, that makes seas are much warmer than before and fish no longer can be found near the shoreline. In addition, the land and water pollution caused by man activities also increase the level of environmental degradation.
The plan for food security is only lays on the Food Security Office, which no coordination with the Local office of Agriculture and Fisheries, Local office of Health and worse, lack of coordination with the community itself from the village to the city level. Participatory development of resilient CRFS will improve the understanding by citizens and governments of urban food systems in an integrated way and at different levels, aligning policies and stimulating horizontal and vertical governance.
Address the Challenges: Describe how your Vision will address the challenges described in the previous question.
The city food system established will be addressing the challenge by taking several actions below:
I) Improved food system governance and food policies: inclusive multi-actor (MA) food platforms as a major innovation in approach. City Food plan from 2020 to 2050 will be the main result of this section.
II) Increased awareness and demand of urban consumers: Involving consumers in the food platforms, stimulating dietary diversity by public institutions (including schools). Involving social media and working through educational institutions engages young people on food, health and sustainability issues.
III) Innovative food enterprises supply healthy and affordable food: We will convene and coach micro, small and medium-sized sustainable food enterprises that deliver market-based solutions that will trigger innovation and accelerate systemic change in existing market systems. We work both with the formal and informal sector.
IV) Increased CRFS knowledge and evidence base, leading to up-scaling and leveraging impact at (inter) national level: The activities will contribute to building the CRFS approach and indicator framework, as well as the network of cities and countries involved.
V) Reduced Environmental degradation policy, the policy implementation will be focusing produced local foods, with circular economy approach
High Level Vision: With these challenges addressed, now provide a high level description of how the Place and the lives of its People will be different than they are now.
A sustainable, resilient Coastal City Food System will aspire to enhance sustainability across scales and sectors. All people have access 100% sustainably produced food.
1. Increases access to food: Both rural and urban residents in a given city region have access to sufficient nutritious, safe, and affordable food.
2. Generate decent jobs and income. fair and descent jobs and income opportunities for small scale producers and businesses involved in food chain.
3. Increases the regions resilience against shocks and lessens the dependence on distant supply sources;
4. Fosters rural-urban linkages. It connects food, nutrient and resources flows across urban and rural areas and prevents/reduces food wastes in a given city region.
5. Promotes ecosystem and natural resources management. It promotes agro-ecological diversity and protects urban ecology/ecosystems. lowers greenhouse gas emission in food chain.
6. Support participatory governance. Land use changing policy strictly applied.
Full Vision: How do you describe your Vision for a regenerative and nourishing food future for your Place and People for 2050?
Aerial of Makassar
Makassar Coastal City Food System goal is diverse, healthy and sustainably produced available all citizens of the city without harming the environment. In this vision really focusing on the multi stakeholder’s actors to implement as many as initiatives needed to ensuring sustainable diets.
The food system is the complex relation of actors, relations and processes related to food production, processing, marketing and consumption in a given geographical region that includes one main or smaller urban centre and surrounding peri-urban and rural areas that exchange people, goods and services across the urban-rural continuum.
The system (CRFS) encompass the "complex network of actors, processes and relationships to do with food production, processing, marketing, and consumption that exist in a given geographical region that includes a more or less concentrated urban centre and its surrounding peri- urban and rural hinterlands.
The framework of action on this vision are:
1. Governance: ensuring an enabling environment for effective action
2. Promote Sustainable diets and nutrition
3. Encourage Social and economic equity
4. Promote and strengthen Food production in and around the city
5. Improve Food supply and distribution
6. Reduce Food waste and losses
In this vision, we will develop multi-stakeholder’s platform for Makassar Coastal Food System, the platform will be consisting of many food actors from local government, traders, farmers, entrepreneurs, creative economy implementer and community of Makassar on how to overcome challenges and ensure the availability of sustainable food.
Toolkit that established during the vision implementation can easily access by public and can be used as a base for many cities to create their own food system. The changing of behavior and diet with this system applied will be increasing more life expectancy, encourage the social and economic creativity for many generations to come.
The city food system established will be addressing the challenge by taking several actions below:
I) Improved food system governance and food policies: Convening and coaching inclusive multi-actor (MA) food platforms is at the heart of the proposed project. After comprehensive assessments, the project will further develop these platforms to generate change and innovation in city region food systems. As a major innovation in approach, the MA food platforms will be citizen-driven, and include representation of youth, women and marginalised groups (voices often excluded from the policy table) next to representatives of civil society, formal and informal businesses, administrators and technical experts. Capacity building and assessments will deepen the understanding of the current food system to develop an integrated, context specific food policy and action plan, and further develop the Coastal City food System toolkit that will adopted from RUAF CFRS. Citizens and local entrepreneurs are key actors in transforming parts of the food system (e.g. procurement for canteens of public and private institutions, street vendors and other informal food actors, agro-ecological urban farming, food waste management). These experiences are fed back in the planning and policy development process. Food platforms will be linked to already existing national networks and programmes and they will be encouraged to showcase successful examples to advocate for conducive national policies and replication. City Food plan from 2020 to 2050 will be the main result of this section.
II) Increased awareness and demand of urban consumers: Involving consumers in the food platforms, stimulating dietary diversity by public institutions (including schools), as well as other local food campaigns builds a portfolio of positive examples that increases the demand for healthy affordable food produced in the city region. Involving social media and working through educational institutions engages young people on food, health and sustainability issues. Awards, food festivals and collaboration with the gastronomic sector (chef cooks) create additional opportunities to increase demand for healthy, affordable and sustainably produced food.
III) Innovative food enterprises supply healthy and affordable food: We will convene and coach micro, small and medium-sized sustainable food enterprises that deliver market-based solutions that will trigger innovation and accelerate systemic change in existing market systems. We work both with the formal and informal sector. We with the local government of Makassar city assess and improve investment-readiness and co-finance sustainable food enterprises but also seek increasing local investment. The coaching and investments will focus on companies that provide low-cost, nutritious foods and distribution options, preferably from the region, respecting agro-ecological approaches, while creating employment especially for youth and women.
IV) Increased CCFS knowledge and evidence base, leading to upscaling and leveraging impact at (inter) national level: The activities will contribute to building the CCFS approach and indicator framework, as well as the network of cities and countries involved, by systematising innovations and dissemination of knowledge, and connecting the MA food platforms with peers and networks at national, regional and global level. This includes RUAF city partners, RUAF-ICLEI CityFood -20 cities-, Milan Urban Food Policy Pact -165 cities-, FAO Sustainable Food Cities, Cities Alliance, Asian Local Governments for Organic Agriculture, and UN Habitat rural-urban guidelines and national urban policies. This will enable sharing, learning and benefiting from – as well as contributing to – the rapidly growing body of knowledge in this domain. The project partners will facilitate National, South-South and North-South exchange between cities for capacity building, sharing best practices and leveraging investments. Successful innovations (food policies, business models, community initiatives) will be documented and fed into the global urban food system discussion. Some examples of knowledge products include: an updated version of the CCFS toolkit; a UA Magazine on the issue; webinars on city food innovations; policy and consumer briefs.
V) Reduced Environmental degradation policy, the policy implementation will be focusing produced local foods, with circular economy approach, we will be working with private sector and community organization to improve the use of natural fertilizer, integrated pest management. We and the government of Makassar will be assessing on the implementation of Good Agricultural Practice, encourage reforestation, city parks and encourage the use of public transportation to reduce carbon dioxide. The approach will be collaborated with another city like Surabaya that had already lower the temperature of the city about 2 degrees with many regulations implemented.
This vision brings the following innovations: (1) Strengthening of citizen-driven initiatives and their participation in city region food policy development; (2) A specific focus on working with consumers and food enterprises (3) Design, testing and validation of innovative financing models for multi actor food platforms; (4) Adaptation of the CRFS approach to smaller and medium-sized city regions; (5) Testing and validation of a minimum set of CRFS indicators in project cities. All these outputs will be systematized and upscale in existing global networks.
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