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GIS based Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impacts in Agricultural Systems and Implementation of Climate Smart Agriculture

To be the Institute of Excellence for agricultural research in the country and beyond.

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Written by

Lead Applicant Organization Name

Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI)-IFAKARA, TANZANIA

Lead Applicant Organization Type

  • Researcher Institution

If part of a multi-stakeholder entity (i.e. team), provide the names of other organizations and types of stakeholders collaborating with you.

The program will be implemented in collaboration with Ardhi University, School of Earth Science, Real Estate and Business Informatics

How long have you / your team been working on this Vision?

  • 1-3 years

Lead Applicant: In what city or town are you located?

Ifakara, Morogoro

Lead Applicant: In what country are you located?


Your Selected Place: what’s the name of the Place you’re developing a Vision for?

Morogoro region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions with population of 2,218,4 and area of 70,624 km square.

What country is your selected Place located in?


Describe your relationship to the place you’ve selected.

Morogoro is among of regions with national ecological (biodiversity, wildlife, forest,  wetlands) and agriculture roles in its districts of Gairo, Kilombero, Kilosa, Morogoro, Mvomero and Ulanga district. Both agricultural and ecological role has been threatened by impacts of climate change and decline soil fertility which is also vivid in the regions. Besides, in recently the regions has be been selected for construction of National Agricultural Warehouse for strategic grains in Tanzania. In attempt, to enhance sustainable agriculture production while maintaining the ecological roles of the region, there is need to understand the current (2020) and future (in year 2050) vulnerability of agricultural systems of the regions using GIS, then prioritize and promote Climate Smart Agricultural  and Sustainable Land Management (SLM) Practices using GIS based maps for improved agricultural productivity in the region. 

Describe the People and Place: Provide information that would be helpful for an outsider who has never been there and may have no context about this Place to better understand the area.

Different tribes with different belief and culture do exists in Morogoro regions and portioned with respect to  districtsi i.e in Gairo there are Kaguru, Kutu and Ruguru tribe, in Kilombero there are Ndamba, Pogoro, Ngindo, Yao and Zungwa tribes, in Kilosa there are Kutu, Kagulu, Luguru and Zigua tribe, Morogoro there are Ruguru tribe, Mvomero and Ulanga  ther are Pogoro, Ngindo and Zungwa tribes. district. Owing to business and movement of people in Tanzania, today Morogoro regions has been people of different tribes with different food demands. Several crops are grown in morogoro region for food purpose ceraals (maize, sorghuum, rice, millet), root crops( yams, cassava, sweet potato), fruits (banana, mango, citrus, papaya) to mention few. Food products from cereals (rice and ugali) and root crops (chips/boiled/ugali) are the most food forms consumed by these tribes in Morogoro region. The low agriculture productions per unit area, food low nutrients (iron, iodine and vitamin A) is among the challenges confronting farming communities in Morogoro region. 

The climate of the region has a bi-modal rainfall distribution characterized by two rainfall peaks per year, with a dry spell separating the short rains (October–December) from the long rains (March–May). Rainfall exceeds 1,000 mm per annum in high altitudes of the Eastern slopes of the Uluguru Mountains and decreases in a gradient to 600 mm per annum in the low altitude plains (Ojoyi et al., 2015). The area receives average rainfall between 800-1,000 mm per year (Morogoro region report, 2015). Morogoro region has an average temperature of 24° C. The minimum is 18° C in mountainous areas and has a maximum of 30° C in lowland areas. The coolest months are May, June and July, while the hottest months are September and October. The topography varies from the flood plains of Kilombero Valley dominated by wetlands and swamp forest while in highlands the region consists of different types mountains with different types of forests including the famous Udzungwa Forest Scarp, Uluguru mountains and other many which both play crucial role in moderating the climate of Morogoro region. Climate and land use change coupled with  increase in population is challenging the sustainability of environments in provide foods to meet the demand. The Morogoro region is also blessed with National Parks such as Mikumi National Park in Kilosa district, Udzungwa Mountain National Park in Kilombero district, Ramsar Wetlands  in Kilombero district, besides there also community forest services in different districts.

Challenges: Describe the current (2020) and the future (2050) challenges that your food system faces.

 In the recent (2020), the four dimensions of food security (availability, accessibility, utilization and systems stability) in Morogoro region has been growing unstable following the impacts of climate change. The food security is challenged by impacts of climate change through evidenced land degradation, loss of soil fertility, secondary salinization, river sedimentation and occurrences of drought and floods which both have contributed to low productivity.  In Tanzania agricultural extension services have been provided by the government through local government authorities which have inadequate training on climate change and impacts to agricultural systems and food security. Lack of services/information for natural resources management (soil and water) and inadequate value chain addition contributed to the observed impacts of climate change impacts in Tanzania. In research study by Kashenge et al., (2014) and Nkuba et al., (2016), unstable extension services,  lack soil information services, CSA skills and knowledge in farming communities are among the main features of food systems in Morogoro region. 

In future (2050), the impacts of climate change are expected also to increase. Owing to that, the Tanzania government in collaboration with other stakeholders have developed and recommended Climate Smart Agricultural (CSA) practices of Tanzania in attempt to address impacts of climate change on food security and environments. However, lack of funds, trained personnel and training materials on CSA practices have limited adoption of CSA practices in Tanzania hence making more people uninformed and unprepared for the impacts of climate change.  Several factors governs adoption of technology and been centered on the variability in geographical environmental features and socio-economic characteristics of a population.  Traditionally handling variable factors governs adoption of technology is cumbersome, however with advent in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) it’s possible to handle and manipulate numerous amounts of environmental and socio-economic data with purpose of extracting useful information of decision making.

Address the Challenges: Describe how your Vision will address the challenges described in the previous question.

My vision will address impacts of climate  in agricultural environments by firstly carrying out vulnerability assessment of different agro-ecological systems to impacts of climate using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Morogoro region. With GIS, I will  develop a GIS based model for vulnerability assessment of agricultural systems to impacts of climate change and the generated GIS based maps will be used for identification of vulnerability hot spots areas and prioritizing the Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) practices in Morogoro region.Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) was first defined and presented by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), in 2010 at the International Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change at Hague in the Netherlands [6]. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defines CSA as “agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes greenhouse gases (mitigation), and enhances the achievement of national food security and development goals.” Besides, my vision also is to improve skills and knowledge of ward agricultural extension officers and selected farming members on natural resource management and CSA practices through establishing Farmers Field School (FFS) for demonstrating CSA technologies in Morogoro region. On the other hand, my vision is to strengthen the capacity of TARI-Ifakara in offering GIS-soil and water based services to small, medium and large scale farmers as the way forward to adapt/mitigate the climate change impacts.  

High Level Vision: With these challenges addressed, now provide a high level description of how the Place and the lives of its People will be different than they are now.

If the challenges confronting food systems in Morogoro will be addressed immediately, the following will be observed:-

1) Increase in agricultural productivity, resilient and reduce emission of Green House Gases (GHGs) following adoption of CSA practices in Morogoro region. 

2) Increased land area under  CSA practices for different crops in Morogoro region.

3) Improved natural resource management (soil and water) by agricultural extension officers and farmers in agricultural environments of Morogoro region.

4) TARI-Ifakara GIS based SOIL & Water Laboratory services improved by installing modern tools for soil and water analysis for agriculture use.  

5) GIS based model developed and used for vulnerability assessment of climate change impacts and up -scaling the CSA practices in Morogoro region. 

6) 30  FFSs established in Morogoro region for demonstration and promotion of CSA practices in Morogoro region.

7) 20 agricultural extension officers from public and private organization trained on CSA practices and GIS for natural resource management under changing climate.

8) The developed GIS model shared as prototypes in other areas with similar environmental settings.

Full Vision: How do you describe your Vision for a regenerative and nourishing food future for your Place and People for 2050?

In nutshell, my vision is to develop a GIS based Model for Assessing Vulnerability of Climate Change and Implementation of CSA Practices in Morogoro,Tanzania. Besides, my vision is to build the capacity of research and agricultural extension systems in Morogoro region in offering services related to CSA and  GIS for natural resource management for sustainable crop production and value chain addition under changing climate of Morogoro region. My vision attempt to address the food challenge in Morogoro region by considering the six components of the call which  environment, diets, economics, culture, technology, and policy. In the context of environments, my vision is to improve soil and water management practices for increased productivity, resilient and reduced GHGs emissions by promoting CSA practices using GIS technology. On the other hand, my vision has considered diets and culture of Morogoro region in promoting CSA practices in the sense that only crops with high acceptability basing on the diets, and culture. In particularly, the crops which are rich in iron, vitamins and iodine will be given high priority in CSA practices, to nourish the food systems of Morogoro regions while addressing malnutrition challenges. The economics and technological level  of the community members will be assessed before and after completing the implementation of food prize vision, thus the selection of CSA practices will heavily depends on the technological level and economics of the community member.

Thus in year 2050, Morogoro region will have stable food systems produced under CSA practices with positive side effects to environments, economics, culture, technology, and policy of Morogoro region, Tanzania. Crop production using CSA practices and value chain addition of crop rich nutrients such as (vitamin A, iron and iodine) will nourish the food system of Morogoro region.

How did you hear about the Food System Vision Prize?

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