Using existing cultural artifacts to illustrate the relevance of mathematics to disadvantaged children
Rutindo School demystifies the importance of maths to children by developing and teaching a curriculum based on cultural artifacts.
Rutindo School: Children in the play ground
Use of a Kite (a Cultural Artifact) to illustrate the Maths Concept of shapes, axis etc
Use of Drums (made from animal skin and wood) to illustrate the Maths Concept of volume, area etc
Rutindo School: Children in the classroom
What problem does your innovation solve?
In rural East Africa, Maths is traditionally viewed as a "hard, difficult and elitist" subject.
The complex concepts and theories of maths, mean that the slow learners or the disadvantaged (many times the disabled, girls, and children in poverty or war-torn area) struggle to understand the subject. Furthermore girls are at times distracted from concentration by home chores, family obligations etc. Over the years, girls in rural schools have come to distance themselves from the subject.
Explain your innovation.
Even if they are not going to school, children in rural East Africa make cultural artefacts.
Many of these cultural artefacts are intrinsically very mathematical. Examples of crafts and trades include:
- Hair Braiding
- Making Mats
- Weaving baskets
- Knitting Table clothes
- Making dolls, balls
- Cultural dance
Janet Kaahwa, PhD (Director, Rutindo School) has done extensive research on girls and maths, popularisation of maths, and maths in culture, in Uganda.
Numbers, counting and maths is a part of life, and without this basic knowledge, a child will go through life at a disadvantage. In urban areas children start gaining these skills at the ages 4, 5, and 6, unlike those in emergency settings. Even if a student from an emergency setting manages to make it through to secondary or university level, a majority fail to cope with new advanced maths and gain little academically. Many others are made to repeat classes for years. Some opt to drop out of school after a few years in school. Most do not even attempt maths.
In communities affected by drought, displacement, conflict, etc, an easy and available approach to teaching numbers, counting and maths is to use culture; a free resource that surrounds us. These homes in emergency settings all have a bit of culture surrounding them. Rutindo Schools will ask parents and students to bring these artifacts to class. In the process the community is propagating both culture and maths. LOWCOST. SUSTAINABLE
Even if they are not going to school, children in rural East Africa make cultural artefacts. Many of these cultural artefacts are intrinsically very mathematical.
User Experience Map A
User Experience Map B
User Experience Map C
User Experience Map D
Use of a basket (woven from reeds) to illustrate the Maths Concept of volume, cylindrical propeties etc
Use of a mat (made from papyrus) to illustrate the Maths Concept of counting, numeracy etc
Use of a braids (a hair weaving crafting) to illustrate the Maths Concept of patterns, symmetry etc
Use of a local Pot (moulded from clay) to illustrate the Maths Concept of spheres, radius, etc
Currently Rutindo is teaching 200 children in North West Uganda. Many factors have hampered education in Pakanyi area, Miirya sub-county, Masindi district. One major factor is poor numeracy and literacy skills among primary school children.
These are children from mainly peasant families which earn less than 1 dollars a day, usually from farming. Most children are between the ages of 3 to 16. Girls account for 40%.
We plan to expand the program to reach 500 more children, classified in age brackets for grouped lessons. We will have a special remedial class for girls to encourage participation.
The target is girls from disadvantaged homes; homes that are poverty stricken, warn-torn, displaced, in drought.
Northern Uganda has seen an influx of distraught families fleeing the insecurity in South Sudan. This is in addition to the already existing struggling families who were displaced and destabilised by the brutal 20-year long civil conflict in Northern Uganda.
How is your innovation unique?
This approach uses already existing aids (culture is all around us). It is therefore a welcome route for families and communities to support heritage, preserve good traditions and strengthen culture. This encourages support from local leaders. It also builds a sense of ownership and a feeling of participation by the families. This in-turn makes the project sustainable.
This approach is also a low-cost route because many artifacts are made from local and free resources. For example a ball from banana leaves, a mat from papyrus, braiding your own hair.
Furthermore, there is the secondary benefit of passing on a skill or trade of craft making. This could turn build entrepreneurial ideas and opportunities in children.
But perhaps the best advantage of culture is the simplicity and ease with which it illustrates particularly difficult maths / concepts: it makes maths a fun game, a joy, a basket, a hair piece, a clothe, a dance... (the child now realises why it is important).
What are some of your unanswered questions about the idea?
We are trying to modularise the lesson plans, so that they can be adapted to any region, without spending alot to research new cultures. We are re-structuring our model to adapt to new regions.
We also seek to further understand the root causes better:
1) Most students aspire to prestigious professions such as doctor, lawyer, engineer, accounts etc. Many frown on the teaching profession. Because of this, we have ended up with teachers who resorted to the teaching profession as a third or fourth option (when all else failed). They, therefore, lack the passion and zeal to teach, let alone effectively communicate maths.
2) Another mind boggling trend is that many girls literally fear mathematics. Many think it is the preserve for boys.
Tell us more about you.
Rutindo is a Nursery and Primary school with over 200 children, in North Western Uganda.
Our funding is generated mainly through the modest fees we charge parents and some donations.
The core team -
Director: Dr. Janet Kaahwa - Mathematics researcher and Advocate for girl-child education.
Director: Dr. Yusto Kaahwa - Physics professor
Headteacher: Harriet Birungi
Creative Director: Andrew Amara - Development specialist and Project Planner
Lubandi Anthony - Head of Accounts and Audit
Some of the teachers of Rutindo School
What is the primary type of emergency setting where your innovation would operate?
Emergency Setting - Elaborate
This idea has been developed particularly for
- the rural settings where the usually mandatory teaching-resources are meagre
- the context of displacement (perhaps due to war or conflict) which does not afford the luxury of calm teaching environment with the right teaching aids.
- the context of natural disasters such as drought or floods.
These emergency settings present little formal aids, classroom space, chalk or desks. However culture artifacts are ever present even in distress.
Where will your innovation be implemented?
The Model is to spread a new teaching approach through a series of compact lesson plans.
Pilot A will be run in Pakanyi, Masindi District
Pilot B will be run in Kiryandongo and Bweyale districts in North West Uganda. (Both have seen an influx of families displace by conflict or drought or poverty)
The 2nd phase would be conducted in selected camps of refugees from Southern Sudan, through partnerships with NGO in Gulu.
Scaling up of the project will be to displacement camps in the region
Experience in Implementation Country(ies)
Yes, for more than one year.
Some partners include:
- Pakanyi Local Council: Local leaders
- Masindi District: District authorities
- Ministry of Education
- Makerere University: Academicians doing related research at the university
- Town Build Limited: Private sector development company
- Walyoba Church and St. Pauls Pakanyi Church
- Individual donors from UK
We are furthermore seeking participation of interested teachers at a subsidised cost, and using learning venues that are donated by the communities.
I've worked in a sector related to my innovation for more than a year.
Sector Expertise - Elaborate
The founders and school leaders are education professionals and academics at the country's best University. Dr. Janet Kaahwa's career and research has focused on mathematics education and the girl child. She has author the popular maths textbook for O-level secondary school, SMEA.
Rutindo School has over 8 years experience in educating underprivileged children.
The proposed project will be implemented by the team of teachers and co-ordinators at Rutindo, along with several local partners.
Early Stage Innovation: I am exploring my innovation, refining, researching, and gathering inspiration.
We are a registered for-profit company (including social enterprises).
Masindi District, Uganda
How has your Idea changed based on feedback?
We are going to include an assessment module in the program at various stages, in order to gauge the arithmetic skills and deficiencies of children as they progress. This will inform us on how to adjust the teaching aids to suit the different learn levels & children.
The curriculum will be developed to be engaging, and interactive so as to maintain the enthusiasm & interest of both teachers and children.
Created objects could be sold as incentives/rewards.
Who will implement this Idea?
Program Manager - Andrew Amara (Profession: Development specialist and Project Manager)
Program Co-ordinator - Rwabusaiga Tadeo (Statistician)
Program Co-ordinator - Harriet Birungi (Head teacher)
- Aganira Florence
- Jowala Katusabe
- Kyalisima Sharon
- Ngonzebwa Irene
- Wabyona Samuel
- Mugidde Lorna
Program Development Team:
Dr. Janet Kaahwa - Maths & Girls Researcher
Dr. Yusto Kaahwa - Physics Professor
Harriet Busingye - Governance & Legal Expert
Anthony Lubandi - Auditor, Accounts
James Alituhikya - Technology Expert
Esther Kantate - Child education
What challenges do your end-users face? (1) What is the biggest challenge that your end-users face on a day-to-day, individual level? (2) What is the biggest systems-level challenge that affects your end-users?
Ms Birungi a maths teacher:
"Absenteeism interrupts the progress of learning. One day the child will come to school. the next day he will be absent. ... secondly, the pay for teachers is low in relation to the personal needs of a teacher"
Ms. Katusabe: "...many children find difficulty in interpreting words/sentences and identifying figures/numbers: this points to a poor foundation."
Ms. Kyalisima: "We lack many fornal maths instruments: chalk board campus, long ruler, protractor, set square. We have to improvise with little means."
Some of the children we interviewed believe that mathematics is hard (sometimes because of parents assumptions, teachers' attitude or performance in class).
How is your organization considering sustainable growth in order to continue making an impact over time?
Currently we collect modest fees from parents, which we use to cover the operation expenses.
For the proposed program,
- we will charge parents a small fee,
- some artifacts can be sold for revenue
- build partnerships with local vocational schools, universities, potential employers and private sector who could fund scholarships.
To maintain quality of the program
- enthusiastic teachers/school are identified and inducted to champion the program
- networks with ministry and schools will be developed so that the program is incorporated into mainstream teaching
Tell us about your vision for this project: (1) share one sentence about the impact that you would like to see from this project in five years and (2) what is the biggest question/hurdle you need to address to get there?
IMPACT: Improve the maths competence of 2,500 children in 50 schools across Uganda, while equipping 200 teachers with new skills-set for interactive, culture-based curriculum through our program by 2021.
QUESTION: How do we scale the program to multiple schools in East Africa region, while maintaining the quality of the curriculum, and robustness of the interactive model? How do we modularise the lesson plans in formats where we do not spend alot of time to customise it in different regions?
How do you currently measure (or plan to measure) outcomes for this project?
1. Qualitative Assessment with surveys and interviews on children, teachers and parents at the start, mid-way and end of the 3 month program.
2. Review of maths performance results in national exams.
Long term KPI +3 years and social indicators on progress:
3. Number of school dropouts
4. Number of secondary school admissions
5. Number of university admissions
5. Number of employed youth
What is the timeline for your project Idea? What are the key steps for implementation in the next 1-3 years?
Month 1-6 Curriculum Development
Month 6-9 Pilot A in Masindi
Month 9-12 Pilot B in Masindi
Month 1-6 Revisions to the Curriculum
Month 6-9 Program in Bweyale District
Month 6-9 Program in Kiryandongo District
Months 1 - 12 Scaling up of the program to the North Uganda region and Refugee camps.
My organization's operational budget for 2016 was:
How many of your team’s paid, full-time staff are currently based in the location where the beneficiaries of your proposed Idea live?
Between 10-20 paid, full-time staff
Is your organization registered in the country that you intend to implement your Idea in?
We are registered in all countries where we plan to implement.
How long have you and your colleagues been working on this Idea together?
What do you need the most support with for your innovation?
Business Development / Partnerships Support
Business Model Support