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PRAAS : Proactive and Active IOT-based Surveillance and Data Analytics for Farmer-Herder Conflict Resolution & Peace Keeping in Africa.

Building safer communities and planning better public services in Africa using Internet of Things and Data Analytics

Photo of Waddah Fadul
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*Please Upload User Experience Map (as attachment) and any additional insights gathered from Beneficiary Feedback in this field

Attached the project presentation and user experience map

Why does the target community define this problem as urgent and/or a priority? How is the idea leveraging and empowering community assets to help create an environment for success? (1000 characters)

The farmers-herders clashes are omnipresent and occur across the Sahara, Sahel and Savannah. Primarily caused by competition over resources such as land and fresh water, these conflicts are further compounded by existing ethnic and religious tensions as evident in Sudan, Nigeria and Lake Chad to name a few.

These conflicts lead to loss of life and livestock, displacement, and serious damages to local economic activity and most importantly, they pose a threat to social cohesion, national unity and increase the possibility of inter-state conflicts and civil wars.

PRAAS is an adaptive system that can be integrated with relevant current and historical data to generate information that can be used along with the social and governmental data to predict the constancy and changes in pastoralism pathways. Such data can assist in a better understanding of climate change, resource sufficiency and service planning.

How does the idea fit within the larger ecosystem that surrounds it? Urgent needs are usually a symptom of a larger issue that rests within multiple interrelated symptoms - share what you know about the context surrounding the problem you are aiming to solve. (500 characters)

-Better services in addition to the prediction of Grievances and Injustice:
the results can be used to predict shortages in resources and nomadic needs. It also allows decision makers to plan better health and education services.

-Better understating of the impacts of global warming:
PRAAS compares on-ground facts with the scientific prediction and simulation models in order to have clearer insight on the global warming impacts on temperature, rainfall, wind and grass

How does the idea affect or change the fundamental nature of the larger ecosystem that surrounds it (as described above) in a new and/or far-reaching way? (500 characters)

Unlike PRAAS; the current solutions are remedial rather than proactive as they focus on active or after-incident data analysis rather than applying a parallel proactive model most of the time. As a result, they lack integrity between the current situation and historical data.

PRAAS machine-learning platform generates information that can assist not only in predicting the hot/cold conflicts but also to give better understanding of climate change, resource sufficiency and service planning

What will be different within the target community as a result of implementing the idea? What is the scope and scale of that difference? How long will it take to see that difference and how will it be sustained beyond BridgeBuilder support? (500 characters)

PRAAS designed to generate cold and hot alerts on the potential and instant conflicts between farmers and herders in specific places in Africa. The system aims to reduce the number of annual conflicts to less than 50% following the next year of implementation.

Reducing the number of conflicts per year leads to better farming and less number of displaced people; both together will lead to better economic cycle. Furthermore, it will help to avoid the frequent loss of life and livestock.

How has the idea evolved or responded to your user research during the Beneficiary Feedback Phase and any further insights provided if you participated in the Expert Feedback Phase? (1000 characters)

We have conducted couple of surveys in the local communities to allow them to feedloop the system design process. They have highlighted some valuable points that will assist in making PRAAS responds to a bigger ecosystem group of challenges.

We also consulted couple of technical SMEs who are originally from these communities, they have great knowledge about the ecosystem needed to be put in mind while developing solutions like PRAAS. Moreover, the user map experience allowed us to adjust the system's process for green and red alert generation to be more effective.

What are the key steps for implementation in the next 1-3 years? (You can attach a timeline or GANTT chart in place of a written plan, if desired.) (1000 characters)

Attached the GANTT Chart

Describe the individual or team that will implement this idea (if a partnership, please explain breakdown of roles and responsibilities for each entity). (Feel free to share an organizational chart or visual description of your team). (500 characters)

PRAAS founder and main developer:
- Waddah is an award winner technology consultant and manager with extended experience in leading digital transformation projects. He holds a B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering and MSc in Strategy.

PRAAS consultant:
- Isra is an AUD Alumna where she was the president of "Women in Engineering". Her senior project aimed to help disabled ranked 3rd by IEEE UAE.

Project Team (to be assigned by UofK):
-Developers x3
-Cirucit designer x1
-Data analyst x2

What aspects of the idea would potential BridgeBuilder funds primarily support? (500 characters)

as per our plan, the BridgeBuilder funds will primarily support PRAAS in the fixed cost/equipment and capital part (second column as per the attached cost budgeting).

In preparation for our Expert Feedback Phase: What are three unanswered questions or challenges that you could use support on in your project? These questions will be answered directly by experts matched specifically to your idea and needs.

1- What would be the process for a NGO to have an direct access to active satellite readings of the weather and grass quality?
2- Is it sufficient for a sustainable system to have an independent network of LAN network or to shift to LoRa or LoRaWAN?
3- What are the best alternative way to detect the grass quality in addition to grassometers and Satellite?

Final Updates (*Please do not complete until we reach the Improve Phase*): How has the idea evolved or responded to your user research during the Beneficiary Feedback Phase and any further insights provided if you participated in the Expert Feedback Phase? (1000 characters)

1- We worked on the results of the first survey P20181V for 3 categories CAT A, B & C to compare the results of the magnitude of attacks 2016-2018 as per each group to understand the commons and outliers.

2- We received a confirmation for the local mobile service provider that most areas in the initial targeted region will be covered by the service (word of mouth), therefore we developed an additional module to send the data over 3G/4G networks.

During this Improve Phase, please use the space below to add any additional information to your proposal.

1- Based on the great feed back we received from the community coaches -Jaskeerat Bedi and Jean-Marc Mercy- we reanalyzed the data sets in order to select the best area to install the first smart poles and sensors' network of the green and red alerts. Because of its unique location nearby the contacts lines of farmers and herders in Darfur region, Sudan and its relatively higher safety level among the different areas of Darfur, Zalingei area has been selected to be the first installation base for the system. we developed the user experience map to highlight the role of the law enforcement officer as the real user who gets the assistance from PRASS analysis team.

2- In addition, we added detailed information about the correlation between rain and grass in the targeted area to the proposal, we used and referred to data collected by Santa Clara University, University of East Anglia and Al Massar organization for nomadic development and environmental conservation.

3- Moreover, we highlighted the first conducted survey with the sample size and category type, we also the null & alternative hypothesis on the second mass survey we are about to conduct in October to find the statistical correlation between the number of attacks and the financial situation and the nominal GDP of the targeted area.

4- Finally, earlier feedback during the Expert Feedback phase delivered by Daniela Chiriac provided us with great insight on Amnesty International Nigeria Satellite and the ADPC SERVIR-Mekong projects, both projects allow us to fine-tune our satellite data reading module in addition to the on-ground network of sensors.

Note that you may also edit any of your previous answers within the proposal. Here is a great place to note any big final changes or iterations you have made to your proposal below:

1- First installation base has been selected. Zalingei area in the State of Centeral Darfur, Sudan.

2- We developed additional survey sets P20182V & P20183V for CAT A,B & C (Farmers, Herders and Government Official).

3- we changed the title of the project to "PRAAS : Proactive and Active IOT-based Surveillance and Data Analytics for Farmer-Herder Conflict Resolution & Peace Keeping in Africa." to give better insight on its critical role.



Proactive and Active IOT-based Surveillance for Tribal and Nomadic Conflict Resolution and Peace Keeping in Africa (PRAAS) is an integrated system primarily intended to be used by local government authorities to learn about and predict current and future conflicts. A combination of sensors, drones, a data analysis suite, LTE and satellite routers will be used to generate two types of alerts: green proactive and red active.

PRAAS’ proactive element employs rain, grass and water supply sensors to indicate the threshold (of what) and then compares readings with historic rain measurements and water supply data in order to generate a green alert on potential conflicts. Proactive alerts are intended to aid authorities in planning and taking necessary security measures. In addition, the proactive element will also provide data that can help in assessing the monthly and yearly impact of global warming on rainfall, temperature, pasture and groundwater.

PRAAS’ active surveillance system utilizes smart poles grid, mobile vehicles and GPS-guided drones. The smart poles and mobile vehicle contain laser-based motion detectors/counters circuits connected to thermographic cameras which can be used to detect mass movement of people, cattle and vehicles to generate a red alert for authorities to take action in case of emergencies. Moreover, the active surveillance system will be able to detect any unusual activity in the local mobile network due to its GSM network module integration capabilities.

  

Explain your project idea (2,000 characters)

Farmers-herders conflicts have a long history in Africa and have been growing increasingly more frequent and violent owing to environmental degradation, demographic change and a worsening political climate. These clashes are omnipresent and occur across the Sahara, Sahel and Savannah. Primarily caused by competition over resources such as land and fresh water, these conflicts are further compounded by existing ethnic and religious tensions as evident in Sudan, Nigeria and Lake Chad to name a few.
 
The main challenge faced by African government officials when dealing with farmers-herders conflicts arise from the large geographic area of some African countries as gathering data and deploying troops on the ground are more difficult to do in larger countries. In addition, the lack of information about the impacts of global warming and resource scarcity makes it even more complicated to predict the conflicts and to plan services to the locals.

Currently, most conflict monitoring systems are remedial rather than proactive as they focus on active or after-incident data analysis rather than applying a parallel proactive model most of the time. As a result, they lack integrity between the current situation and historical data.

PRAAS employs rain, grass and water supply sensors to indicate the threshold and then compares readings with historic rain measurements and water supply data in order to generate a green alert on potential conflicts. In addition, PRAAS utilizes smart poles grid, mobile vehicles and GPS-guided drones. The smart poles and mobile vehicle contain laser-based motion detectors/counters circuits connected to thermographic cameras which can be used to detect mass movement of people, cattle and vehicles to generate a red alert for authorities to take action in case of emergencies.

Who are the beneficiaries? (1,000 characters)

- Farmers, herders and local governments in Sudan, Nigeria and Chad.

How is your idea unique? (1,000 characters)

- Prediction of Grievances and Injustice:
PRAAS delivers early bird information that can be used to predict shortages in resources and nomadic needs.


- Service Planning and Social trends studying:
PRAAS ability for self-learning and its integration with social data can allow decision makers to plan the health and education services in an efficient manner.

- Data Integrity:
PRAAS has the ability to integrate with additional modules for detailed data analysis. It can use historical data for more precise comparison and result generation.

- A Self-learning system for better understating of the impacts of the global warming:
PRAAS is an adaptive system that can be integrated with relevant current and historical data to generate information that can be used along with the social and governmental data to predict the constancy and changes in pastoralism pathways. Such data can assist in a better understanding of climate change and resource sufficiency.

Idea Proposal Stage (choose one)

  • Prototype: I have done some small tests or experiments with prospective users to continue developing the idea.

Tell us more about your organization/company (1 sentence and website URL)

“Institute of Tomorrow” is a youth think tank that takes into account developing an intellectual platform to provide trustworthy consultancy, agile designs and sustainable solutions to Sudan and Africa’s top-ranked problems and challenges.

In 2016, University of Pennsylvania selected Institute of Tomorrow as one of best new think tanks in the world.

http://www.iotsudan.org

Expertise in sector

  • 3-5 years

Organization Filing Status

  • Yes, we are a registered non-profit.

In 3-4 sentences, tell us the inspiration or story that encouraged you to start this project.

Experts form the United Nations and other organizations estimate that farmers-herders conflicts led to the death and displacement of thousands of people in Africa over the past few years. Some of the bloodiest of the recent conflicts include: the 2013 clash between Ma’aliya and Rizeigat tribal groups in Sudan which left 209 tribesmen dead and 305 others wounded and a 2014 conflict between farmers and Fulanis in Nigeria which led to the death of 1229 people in Nigerian middle belt.

Please explain how your selected topic areas are influenced, in the local context of your project (1,000 characters).

Farmer-herders conflicts have dire consequences both in the short and long term. These conflicts lead to loss of life and livestock, displacement, and serious damages to local economic activity and most importantly, they pose a threat to social cohesion, national unity and increase the possibility of inter-state conflicts and civil wars.

Who will work alongside your organization in the project idea? (1,000 characters)

- University of Khartoum (confirmed participation).

- Institute of Tomorrow, The young think tank of Sudan, East Africa and the Middle East (Confirmed participation).

- African Union (Awaiting confirmation).

Please share some of the top strengths identified in the community which your project will serve (500 characters)

Currently, Africa represents more than 19% of the global youth population. According to the UN, and by 2030, it is predicted that the number of youths in Africa will have increased by 42%.

Young people are today's catalyst for social change. In Sudan, where 60% of the population are under 24 and adult literacy has been increasing over the past ten years, there is a great opportunity in listening to the unspoken words & to exploiting the static capabilities of the young generation.

Geographic Focus

Phase 1: Zalingei, State of Central Darfur, Sudan.
Phase 2: Northern and middle belts of Nigeria.

How many months are required for the project idea? (500 characters)

Green Alert Module : 4 Months
Red Alert Module : 9 Months

Did you submit this idea to our 2017 BridgeBuilder Challenge? (Y/N)

  • No

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Photo of geoffrey mosigisi
Team

Hi, waddah

It is a good proposal but I know herders will conflict with other herders, because of grazing boundaries and it's madness for herders to graze on crops that have been grown in the farms ,it is rare to happen. One time in Kenya some pastoralists near the border of Tanzania, they had no grass, they entered into Tanzania and started to graze, but they were unlucky because the government arrested them. So I don't see how herders-farmers can work. Also everyone has his own land, may you expound more on how farmers and herders disagree?. Thanks

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Hi Geoffrey,
The conflicts between farmers and herders in many places in Africa -including Sudan and Nigeria- is a serious issue. It initiates from the very limited resources available because of the global warming . The main challenge faced by African government officials when dealing with farmers-herders conflicts arise from the large geographic area of some African countries as gathering data and deploying troops on the ground are more difficult to do in larger countries. In addition, the lack of information about the impacts of global warming and resource scarcity makes it even more complicated to predict the conflicts and to plan services to the locals.

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