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PRAAS : Proactive and Active IOT-based Surveillance and Data Analytics for Farmer-Herder Conflict Resolution & Peace Keeping in Africa.

Building safer communities and planning better public services in Africa using Internet of Things and Data Analytics

Photo of Waddah Fadul
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*Please Upload User Experience Map (as attachment) and any additional insights gathered from Beneficiary Feedback in this field

Attached the project presentation and user experience map

Why does the target community define this problem as urgent and/or a priority? How is the idea leveraging and empowering community assets to help create an environment for success? (1000 characters)

The farmers-herders clashes are omnipresent and occur across the Sahara, Sahel and Savannah. Primarily caused by competition over resources such as land and fresh water, these conflicts are further compounded by existing ethnic and religious tensions as evident in Sudan, Nigeria and Lake Chad to name a few. These conflicts lead to loss of life and livestock, displacement, and serious damages to local economic activity and most importantly, they pose a threat to social cohesion, national unity and increase the possibility of inter-state conflicts and civil wars. PRAAS is an adaptive system that can be integrated with relevant current and historical data to generate information that can be used along with the social and governmental data to predict the constancy and changes in pastoralism pathways. Such data can assist in a better understanding of climate change, resource sufficiency and service planning.

How does the idea fit within the larger ecosystem that surrounds it? Urgent needs are usually a symptom of a larger issue that rests within multiple interrelated symptoms - share what you know about the context surrounding the problem you are aiming to solve. (500 characters)

-Better services in addition to the prediction of Grievances and Injustice: the results can be used to predict shortages in resources and nomadic needs. It also allows decision makers to plan better health and education services. -Better understating of the impacts of global warming: PRAAS compares on-ground facts with the scientific prediction and simulation models in order to have clearer insight on the global warming impacts on temperature, rainfall, wind and grass

How does the idea affect or change the fundamental nature of the larger ecosystem that surrounds it (as described above) in a new and/or far-reaching way? (500 characters)

Unlike PRAAS; the current solutions are remedial rather than proactive as they focus on active or after-incident data analysis rather than applying a parallel proactive model most of the time. As a result, they lack integrity between the current situation and historical data. PRAAS machine-learning platform generates information that can assist not only in predicting the hot/cold conflicts but also to give better understanding of climate change, resource sufficiency and service planning

What will be different within the target community as a result of implementing the idea? What is the scope and scale of that difference? How long will it take to see that difference and how will it be sustained beyond BridgeBuilder support? (500 characters)

PRAAS designed to generate cold and hot alerts on the potential and instant conflicts between farmers and herders in specific places in Africa. The system aims to reduce the number of annual conflicts to less than 50% following the next year of implementation. Reducing the number of conflicts per year leads to better farming and less number of displaced people; both together will lead to better economic cycle. Furthermore, it will help to avoid the frequent loss of life and livestock.

How has the idea evolved or responded to your user research during the Beneficiary Feedback Phase and any further insights provided if you participated in the Expert Feedback Phase? (1000 characters)

We have conducted couple of surveys in the local communities to allow them to feedloop the system design process. They have highlighted some valuable points that will assist in making PRAAS responds to a bigger ecosystem group of challenges. We also consulted couple of technical SMEs who are originally from these communities, they have great knowledge about the ecosystem needed to be put in mind while developing solutions like PRAAS. Moreover, the user map experience allowed us to adjust the system's process for green and red alert generation to be more effective.

What are the key steps for implementation in the next 1-3 years? (You can attach a timeline or GANTT chart in place of a written plan, if desired.) (1000 characters)

Attached the GANTT Chart

Describe the individual or team that will implement this idea (if a partnership, please explain breakdown of roles and responsibilities for each entity). (Feel free to share an organizational chart or visual description of your team). (500 characters)

PRAAS founder and main developer: - Waddah is an award winner technology consultant and manager with extended experience in leading digital transformation projects. He holds a B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering and MSc in Strategy. PRAAS consultant: - Isra is an AUD Alumna where she was the president of "Women in Engineering". Her senior project aimed to help disabled ranked 3rd by IEEE UAE. Project Team (to be assigned by UofK): -Developers x3 -Cirucit designer x1 -Data analyst x2

What aspects of the idea would potential BridgeBuilder funds primarily support? (500 characters)

as per our plan, the BridgeBuilder funds will primarily support PRAAS in the fixed cost/equipment and capital part (second column as per the attached cost budgeting).

In preparation for our Expert Feedback Phase: What are three unanswered questions or challenges that you could use support on in your project? These questions will be answered directly by experts matched specifically to your idea and needs.

1- What would be the process for a NGO to have an direct access to active satellite readings of the weather and grass quality? 2- Is it sufficient for a sustainable system to have an independent network of LAN network or to shift to LoRa or LoRaWAN? 3- What are the best alternative way to detect the grass quality in addition to grassometers and Satellite?

Final Updates (*Please do not complete until we reach the Improve Phase*): How has the idea evolved or responded to your user research during the Beneficiary Feedback Phase and any further insights provided if you participated in the Expert Feedback Phase? (1000 characters)

1- We worked on the results of the first survey P20181V for 3 categories CAT A, B & C to compare the results of the magnitude of attacks 2016-2018 as per each group to understand the commons and outliers. 2- We received a confirmation for the local mobile service provider that most areas in the initial targeted region will be covered by the service (word of mouth), therefore we developed an additional module to send the data over 3G/4G networks.

During this Improve Phase, please use the space below to add any additional information to your proposal.

1- Based on the great feed back we received from the community coaches -Jaskeerat Bedi and Jean-Marc Mercy- we reanalyzed the data sets in order to select the best area to install the first smart poles and sensors' network of the green and red alerts. Because of its unique location nearby the contacts lines of farmers and herders in Darfur region, Sudan and its relatively higher safety level among the different areas of Darfur, Zalingei area has been selected to be the first installation base for the system. we developed the user experience map to highlight the role of the law enforcement officer as the real user who gets the assistance from PRASS analysis team. 2- In addition, we added detailed information about the correlation between rain and grass in the targeted area to the proposal, we used and referred to data collected by Santa Clara University, University of East Anglia and Al Massar organization for nomadic development and environmental conservation. 3- Moreover, we highlighted the first conducted survey with the sample size and category type, we also the null & alternative hypothesis on the second mass survey we are about to conduct in October to find the statistical correlation between the number of attacks and the financial situation and the nominal GDP of the targeted area. 4- Finally, earlier feedback during the Expert Feedback phase delivered by Daniela Chiriac provided us with great insight on Amnesty International Nigeria Satellite and the ADPC SERVIR-Mekong projects, both projects allow us to fine-tune our satellite data reading module in addition to the on-ground network of sensors.

Note that you may also edit any of your previous answers within the proposal. Here is a great place to note any big final changes or iterations you have made to your proposal below:

1- First installation base has been selected. Zalingei area in the State of Centeral Darfur, Sudan. 2- We developed additional survey sets P20182V & P20183V for CAT A,B & C (Farmers, Herders and Government Official). 3- we changed the title of the project to "PRAAS : Proactive and Active IOT-based Surveillance and Data Analytics for Farmer-Herder Conflict Resolution & Peace Keeping in Africa." to give better insight on its critical role.



Proactive and Active IOT-based Surveillance for Tribal and Nomadic Conflict Resolution and Peace Keeping in Africa (PRAAS) is an integrated system primarily intended to be used by local government authorities to learn about and predict current and future conflicts. A combination of sensors, drones, a data analysis suite, LTE and satellite routers will be used to generate two types of alerts: green proactive and red active.

PRAAS’ proactive element employs rain, grass and water supply sensors to indicate the threshold (of what) and then compares readings with historic rain measurements and water supply data in order to generate a green alert on potential conflicts. Proactive alerts are intended to aid authorities in planning and taking necessary security measures. In addition, the proactive element will also provide data that can help in assessing the monthly and yearly impact of global warming on rainfall, temperature, pasture and groundwater.

PRAAS’ active surveillance system utilizes smart poles grid, mobile vehicles and GPS-guided drones. The smart poles and mobile vehicle contain laser-based motion detectors/counters circuits connected to thermographic cameras which can be used to detect mass movement of people, cattle and vehicles to generate a red alert for authorities to take action in case of emergencies. Moreover, the active surveillance system will be able to detect any unusual activity in the local mobile network due to its GSM network module integration capabilities.

  

Explain your project idea (2,000 characters)

Farmers-herders conflicts have a long history in Africa and have been growing increasingly more frequent and violent owing to environmental degradation, demographic change and a worsening political climate. These clashes are omnipresent and occur across the Sahara, Sahel and Savannah. Primarily caused by competition over resources such as land and fresh water, these conflicts are further compounded by existing ethnic and religious tensions as evident in Sudan, Nigeria and Lake Chad to name a few. The main challenge faced by African government officials when dealing with farmers-herders conflicts arise from the large geographic area of some African countries as gathering data and deploying troops on the ground are more difficult to do in larger countries. In addition, the lack of information about the impacts of global warming and resource scarcity makes it even more complicated to predict the conflicts and to plan services to the locals. Currently, most conflict monitoring systems are remedial rather than proactive as they focus on active or after-incident data analysis rather than applying a parallel proactive model most of the time. As a result, they lack integrity between the current situation and historical data. PRAAS employs rain, grass and water supply sensors to indicate the threshold and then compares readings with historic rain measurements and water supply data in order to generate a green alert on potential conflicts. In addition, PRAAS utilizes smart poles grid, mobile vehicles and GPS-guided drones. The smart poles and mobile vehicle contain laser-based motion detectors/counters circuits connected to thermographic cameras which can be used to detect mass movement of people, cattle and vehicles to generate a red alert for authorities to take action in case of emergencies.

Who are the beneficiaries? (1,000 characters)

- Farmers, herders and local governments in Sudan, Nigeria and Chad.

How is your idea unique? (1,000 characters)

- Prediction of Grievances and Injustice: PRAAS delivers early bird information that can be used to predict shortages in resources and nomadic needs. - Service Planning and Social trends studying: PRAAS ability for self-learning and its integration with social data can allow decision makers to plan the health and education services in an efficient manner. - Data Integrity: PRAAS has the ability to integrate with additional modules for detailed data analysis. It can use historical data for more precise comparison and result generation. - A Self-learning system for better understating of the impacts of the global warming: PRAAS is an adaptive system that can be integrated with relevant current and historical data to generate information that can be used along with the social and governmental data to predict the constancy and changes in pastoralism pathways. Such data can assist in a better understanding of climate change and resource sufficiency.

Idea Proposal Stage (choose one)

  • Prototype: I have done some small tests or experiments with prospective users to continue developing the idea.

Tell us more about your organization/company (1 sentence and website URL)

“Institute of Tomorrow” is a youth think tank that takes into account developing an intellectual platform to provide trustworthy consultancy, agile designs and sustainable solutions to Sudan and Africa’s top-ranked problems and challenges. In 2016, University of Pennsylvania selected Institute of Tomorrow as one of best new think tanks in the world. http://www.iotsudan.org

Expertise in sector

  • 3-5 years

Organization Filing Status

  • Yes, we are a registered non-profit.

In 3-4 sentences, tell us the inspiration or story that encouraged you to start this project.

Experts form the United Nations and other organizations estimate that farmers-herders conflicts led to the death and displacement of thousands of people in Africa over the past few years. Some of the bloodiest of the recent conflicts include: the 2013 clash between Ma’aliya and Rizeigat tribal groups in Sudan which left 209 tribesmen dead and 305 others wounded and a 2014 conflict between farmers and Fulanis in Nigeria which led to the death of 1229 people in Nigerian middle belt.

Please explain how your selected topic areas are influenced, in the local context of your project (1,000 characters).

Farmer-herders conflicts have dire consequences both in the short and long term. These conflicts lead to loss of life and livestock, displacement, and serious damages to local economic activity and most importantly, they pose a threat to social cohesion, national unity and increase the possibility of inter-state conflicts and civil wars.

Who will work alongside your organization in the project idea? (1,000 characters)

- University of Khartoum (confirmed participation). - Institute of Tomorrow, The young think tank of Sudan, East Africa and the Middle East (Confirmed participation). - African Union (Awaiting confirmation).

Please share some of the top strengths identified in the community which your project will serve (500 characters)

Currently, Africa represents more than 19% of the global youth population. According to the UN, and by 2030, it is predicted that the number of youths in Africa will have increased by 42%. Young people are today's catalyst for social change. In Sudan, where 60% of the population are under 24 and adult literacy has been increasing over the past ten years, there is a great opportunity in listening to the unspoken words & to exploiting the static capabilities of the young generation.

Geographic Focus

Phase 1: Zalingei, State of Central Darfur, Sudan. Phase 2: Northern and middle belts of Nigeria.

How many months are required for the project idea? (500 characters)

Green Alert Module : 4 Months Red Alert Module : 9 Months

Did you submit this idea to our 2017 BridgeBuilder Challenge? (Y/N)

  • No

33 comments

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Comment
Photo of Leon Buter
Team

Waddah Fadul ,
It looks like a great project and well thought through. I'm really wondering how you are involving the local community in this as their support seems vital to me.
Furthermore, I'm curious on the total area that you wish to monitor.
Lastly, which other type of applications/areas/problemsolving do you forsee with this technology?

Cheers,
Leon

p.s. I have a friend in The Netherlands who is programming remote sensing algorithms to detect soil moisture and vegetation types from satalite data. The company is called VanDerSat, maybe they can help you in any way.

Photo of Daniel  Danowski
Team

Hi Waddah,

This sounds amazing. It's nice to see, disruptive technologies driving our future in a positive way by helping to solve durable problems. But do you really think, we can solve these kind of problems on that way? I guess the problem is more multi-faceted, it is also based on personal conflicts, which have to be solved by moderating between the farmers.

I really appreciate your efforts!

Best,
Daniel

Photo of Ashley Tillman
Team

Hi Waddah Fadul it's to see how much your project has evolved in the past month! Would you mind sharing if this initial version of your project is successful what impact would you hope to see 5 years from now, especially with regards to promoting peace?

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Hi Ashley

We aim to fulfill two short and long run goals:

1- SHORT RUN (25 Months, including the post implementation monitoring period):

We aim to reduce the number of annual conflicts to less than 50% following the next year of implementation.

Reducing the number of conflicts per year leads to better farming and less number of displaced people; both together will lead to better economic cycle. Furthermore, it will help to avoid the frequent loss of life and livestock. Our initial forecast that the nominal GDP for the local communities would be increased by 3% the year post implementation and that would result in better an healthier economic cycle for the targeted region (Darfur in Sudan as an example).

2- LONG RUN (47 years from implementation and 5 years from the kick-off):

We aim to reduce the number of conflicts by 80%, In addition, we look forward to generating enough data that would allow the local authorities to understand the herders movement pattern and therefore to plan better health and education services for them. As an example there are two key elements that affect the overall literacy rate of Sudan; the percentage of female illiterates and the huge school drop (and lack of education services) in rural areas.

By better understanding of the pattern we will be able to reduce the cost of expensive mobile and nomadic schools (71 in West Darfur, 75 in South Darfur and 86 in North Darfur) and health services in order to provide better quality of life for nomadic groups which will assist in achieving a sustainable peace and prosperity.

Finally, the generated data will allow us to understand in such a precise way the affect of global warming to the grasslands of the targeted countries and to predict its future consequences to give a push to the African anti-desertification efforts already in place.

Photo of geoffrey mosigisi
Team

Hi, waddah

It is a good proposal but I know herders will conflict with other herders, because of grazing boundaries and it's madness for herders to graze on crops that have been grown in the farms ,it is rare to happen. One time in Kenya some pastoralists near the border of Tanzania, they had no grass, they entered into Tanzania and started to graze, but they were unlucky because the government arrested them. So I don't see how herders-farmers can work. Also everyone has his own land, may you expound more on how farmers and herders disagree?. Thanks

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Hi Geoffrey,
The conflicts between farmers and herders in many places in Africa -including Sudan and Nigeria- is a serious issue. It initiates from the very limited resources available because of the global warming . The main challenge faced by African government officials when dealing with farmers-herders conflicts arise from the large geographic area of some African countries as gathering data and deploying troops on the ground are more difficult to do in larger countries. In addition, the lack of information about the impacts of global warming and resource scarcity makes it even more complicated to predict the conflicts and to plan services to the locals.

Photo of Brian Bauer
Team

@Waddah Fadul Amazing project, I wish you the best of luck with its implementation! I just wanted to suggest a potential resource that might be really valuable for you. Have you heard of Rippleworks? [ http://www.rippleworks.org/ ] They connect very high end technology experts from Silicon Valley to global ideas that have major social impact or environmental benefits. I just wanted to share this with you as it could be a way to help support your project. Best, Brian

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Thank you Brain for your continuous support, we established a communication channel with RippleWorks team

Photo of Daniela Chiriac
Team

Hello Waddah Fadul,
in response to your questions for the expert feedback:
1. One idea could be to get in contact with Amnesty International who use satellite imagery in order to document their various human rights investigations. They could perhaps suggest you ways to get access to satellite images. Some information about their methodology and sources of data at: https://www.amnestyusa.org/the-story-behind-the-nigeria-satellite-images/
1&3. The Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) is implementing the project SERVIR-Mekong which provides access to specific satellite imagery and analysis for policy makers in the fields of agriculture, land use, water, ecosystems, natural disasters (https://servir.adpc.net/about/what-we-do). There could be an exchange of information and expertise to support on technical aspects such as ways to measure grass quality.
I hope this helps.
All the best.

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Thank you Daniela for the great feedback, we really appreciate it

Photo of Macheru Karuku
Team

Thank you Waddah for your efforts in trying to get solutions for pastoral - farmer conflicts that are not made easier by scarce resources and further compounded by space and ideologies. We have our fair share of these in Kenya and just like you, we are trying to do the best for our people. I however hope that some time we would be able to add value to each others' work for possible synergistic results. All the best.

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Thank you Macheru, I was in Kenya last year and I understand that farmer-herder type of conflicts is a growing issue over there as well. It would be wonderful if we can collaborate together to add Kenya as well to the future phase of PRAAS implementation plan.

Photo of Charles Zulanas
Team

Great idea! Have you considered partnering with Microsoft to deliver this IoT project? I know that they have done work with monitoring water flows https://customers.microsoft.com/en-US/story/powel, and have done some energy work with IoT in Africa https://customers.microsoft.com/en-US/story/m-kopa-solar-power-and-utilities-azure-sql-database-machine-learning-cortana-intelligence-suite-en.
Have you considered security measures for your IoT devices? Some IoT technology is expensive if you implement security measures which prevent them from being hacked, otherwise you run the risk of developing less expensive IoT technology which is easy to be hacked (see https://www.technologyreview.com/s/603500/10-breakthrough-technologies-2017-botnets-of-things/). Also with the green (proactive) alert devices being installed on the ground, they could be tampered with, so having a way to protect the devices could increase the products' useful lives such as waterproofing, camouflaging, and keeping them away from areas where they would attract attention.
If the African Union does not agree to work alongside you on this project, do you have a contingency plan?
In the event that there is a coup in these countries (https://qz.com/1130009/what-is-coup-zimbabwe-joins-40-african-countries-that-have-had-coups/) will you have the data stored and the functionality to operate elsewhere other than at the government agencies?

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Thank you Charles,

We aim to provide PRAAS with a developed integration to Microsoft Azure Sphere which will provide highly integrated and secure communication between the different elements of the system. Moreover, all on-ground elements will be ruggedized and physically secure.

We have considered this as part of our Risk matrix, the first mitigation resolution depends on the proactive knowledge transfer process. We are going to conduct awareness sessions to the involved local authorities in cooperation with the regional agencies. We will be storing the data and therefore we would be able to publish the results online and to share them with the regional agencies.

Photo of Kurt Davis
Team

This is great. There are safety mobile apps in the USA now too that alert people when something dangerous happens. http://www.citizen.com/ I think you can implement a text message notification system to alert people when danger is around them. The system can be as easy as "send 'killing' " to 12345 and then receive this notification then send text to others in the same vicinity who sign up for the service. There are many ways to do this.

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Thank you Kurt
There is a similar concept applied by a group of data scientists to warn the civilians in Syria about the expected artillery attacks using processed satellite data. The good news is that we are witnessing an increase in the total number of people who have access to mobile phones in the rural areas of Sudan, Nigeria and Chad so for sure a SMS Alert model can be developed.

Photo of Brian Bauer
Team

Waddah Fadul Brilliant use of IoT technology! Really amazing example of using technology solutions in a manner customized to unique on the ground situations and challenges. I recently did a grant proposal for Cisco Global Problem Solver Challenge, I think your idea would fit really well into what Cisco looks to fund...the next one is not for about a year...but if you or someone on your team is a recent university grant you should check out the Cisco funding opportunity next year. Best of luck with your proposal! Best, Brian

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Thank you Brian for sharing such a great insight :)

Photo of Brian Bauer
Team

Waddah Fadul Happy to help, best of luck with the next stage of the challenge. Brian

Photo of Shining Hope for Communities (SHOFCO)
Team

Hi Waddah,
This sounds like a great idea to tackle farmer-herder conflicts in Africa. I do have one question for you--are you planning to collaborate or work with the farmers and herders themselves and the local communities in Sudan, Nigeria and Chad or will this project be carried out mainly through local government authorities? Do you know if the local population will be receptive to this kind of solution?

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Thank you
At such current stage, we focus more in developing better problem and solution understanding with the local authorities; they are the key players as per the initial experience design.
We have concluded couple of survey distribution processes to listen to farmers and herders point of view (through their civil administration)

Photo of Gerry Harp
Team

This is a great idea and reasonable proposal. However, weather satellites can be used to detect rainfall/drought conditions as well as foliage density and so on. It seems to me that if you could get access to satellite data you would have a more complete dataset to work with. In principle, it would be a lot cheaper since the satellites are already there. While I think maybe they can do it, setting up high tech devices and communicating with them in the African wilderness sounds very difficult. Have the proposers looked in to other ways of getting the climate data they need?

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Hi Gerry, thank you for your great feedback
Currently we are building an alternative model that depends on Satellite data access. Due to some geo-political issues, Some providers have concerns about how the data is going to be used, this conflict is a real challenge in the active alert (Red) module in specific.
What do you think?

Photo of mohmuns .
Team

It’s a big challenge facing Africa today, with the Technology and dedicated human esources a lot can be done to save lives !.

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Sure, Africa deserves the best

Photo of Fatimah Mohammad
Team

This’s marvelous ! It’s great how you found a way to link between IoT and the situation to find a solution that assets in solving and improving the life in Africa. Incredibly proud of this project and the great idea you provided.

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Thank you very much. I really appreciate it

Photo of Helena Puig Larrauri
Team

Waddah Fadul This is a very interesting idea. I lived in Kadugli for a couple of years, and in Khartoum after that, so fully appreciate the challenge you outline. The idea of using IoT to create a more efficient early warning system is great, especially given the cyclical nature of many conflicts along the nomadic routes. I have a question about how this early warning data will result in action -- who will the information be fed to? and will these organisations / authorities have the resources to respond?

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Thank you Helena,
our initial strategy indicates that collected information to be shared with local authorities. In some countries where the UN or AU has an on-ground presence; PRAAS team plans to share the data to enhance transparency and to raise awareness.

Photo of SIMN Global
Team

This sounds fantastic, Waddah. Can you explain a little more about why you chose your specific geographic areas?

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Hi
Most of the recently reported incidents are concentrated in West Sudan. northern and middle belts of Nigeria and Lake Chad area.

Photo of Ashley Tillman
Team

Hi Waddah great to have you in the Challenge! I loved your video, you were able to convey important information about your project quickly and clearly, which was very helpful to someone new to your idea!

Would love to learn a little bit more about you, how you came to this solution and why? What small prototypes or tests have you run so far and what have you learned or do you want to learn in the next couple months.

Looking forward to learning more!

Photo of Waddah Fadul
Team

Hi Ashely, Thank you for reaching out :)
I am the founder and president of Institute of Tomorrow, an award-winning African think tank that links the universities final year students, private sectors, governments and subject matter experts to bridge the brain drain-gain gap in Africa and the Middle East and to work towards building sustainable solutions to the top-ranked issues of Africa in health, education, energy, technology and public services.

I came to the idea after watching a reportage on the economic impacts of the farmers-herders in Africa . I am an experienced technology consultant so I thought of sharing my knowledge and experience in order to find a sustainable solution for a problem that really affects the economy and community peace of many African countries.

• Current State of PRAAS:
- A laser counter circuit is designed, simulated and tested successfully.
- A protoybe model on using the laser counting process has been implemented successfully.
- A data analysis software is under programming.
- Project concept and data have been shared with couple of universities in Africa in order to engage the final year students towards enhancing the data capture concept and analysis.
- A technical document of the project to be circulated with the UN and African Union local peace-building offices in hot areas of Africa.