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Join our fifth Amplify challenge and design solutions that improve the livelihoods of small scale farmers by reducing waste and spoilage.


Did you know that 80% of the world’s farming is done by small-scale farmers? That translates to about 500,000,000 farmers around the world, working hard to provide food and income to sustain their families.

In spite of their efforts, over 42% of the food these farmers produce is never consumed. Instead, it is lost during harvest, or on the journey from farm to market. The consequences are immense – closing this gap has the potential to feed one billion people and improve livelihoods for farmers.

This is a huge opportunity for open innovation.

Welcome to Amplify’s Agricultural Innovation Challenge. We are inviting NGOs, entrepreneurs and social innovators to join us in designing solutions that improve the livelihoods of the more than half a billion small scale farmers worldwide.

Our challenge is focused on a few key areas where new solutions can have a big impact on reducing waste and spoilage, including improving access to markets, ensuring farmers have access to relevant information, using technology in new ways, and financial services .

By sharing ideas and improving them based feedback from beneficiaries, colleagues and experts, we can design solutions that improve the lives of small scale farmers and their families.

The Agricultural Innovation Challenge is now closed. Please join us in congratulating our winners here.

About Amplify

Amplify is a series of ten innovation challenges bringing increased collaboration and a human-centered design approach to international aid. Up to five winners of each challenge receive a grant of between $50,000 and $150,000, an invitation to four day human-centered design bootcamp and ongoing design support from IDEO.org.  

Amplify is a joint initiative of OpenIDEO, IDEO.org and the UK Department for International Aid (DFID). It is made possible through DFID funding. Learn more about our program here.

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Challenge team

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Chioma Ume, Challenge Manager


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Shane Zhao, Community Manager 



Do you want to get involved in this challenge?

We follow a process with phases. Currently we are in the Impact phase. You can participate by adding stories on the impact of this challenge.
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442 comments

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Photo of Ozuluonye Shedrack

Hi, chioma,

Please any chance you could mention areas i should work on same idea, when pitching my ideas on similar challenge.?

Photo of Alvaro Mufarech

Hi! I was trying to find out if this challenge will be having a second edition during 2017?
Chioma Ume 

Photo of Chelsea Takamine

Hi Alvaro Mufarech ! Amplify will launch additional challenges next year, but they will focus on different topics - look for an announcement next year. Participants from East Africa will be eligible to apply. Feel free to contact us at amplify@ideo.org with additional questions. Thanks for your participation!

Photo of Amruta Byatnal

Food waste: Global Problem, Local Solutions


842 million people go to bed hungry every night. Across the world, nearly one third of the food produced for human consumption is either lost or wasted due to a variety of reasons. This food can be used to feed the vast food-insecure population. In order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of ending hunger, achieving food security and improved nutrition, and promoting sustainable agriculture, eliminating this large scale wastage and loss of food will be key.

Food waste and loss occurs in both developing and developed countries alike - a sign that systems and people in all populations will have to bear the onus of reducing this waste. In developing countries , lack of infrastructure results in losses at the pre and post-harvest stage. The lack of resources for sustainable food systems is a result of both: lack of capital as well as inefficient socio-economic institutions. In industrialized countries, waste occurs at the individual consumer level post-purchase. Processes in the supply chain pertaining to retail, distribution and processing are also responsible for significant amount of waste.

While waste in post-harvest and storing level of the food chain reduces as countries move from low- to middle-income status (Fig 1 and 2), they quickly transition into the countries that account for waste through consumers and the retail trade. An explanation for consumer behaviour that encourages waste might be rooted in the fact that as rising incomes among the poor enable them to consume more foods to diversify their diets, this increased income results in an increased consumption of dairy, meat and fish which are vulnerable, shorter shelf-life items and further results in greater food waste. Food wastage, both in developing and developed countries, affects the productivity of the food system and results in lower incomes for food producers and higher costs for food consumers - adding to the causes of why people cannot afford food and go to bed hungry.

With the world population to set to rise to 10 billion by 2050, reducing food loss and waste will be even more imperative - finding a sustainable solution to eliminate food waste will mean that food availability as well as the the productivity of the food system can be improved without increasing agricultural inputs, the use of scarce natural resources, or the application of improved production technologies - all of which will require additional use of resources. In calorific terms, between the food available today and what is needed for the world population in 2050, there is a gap of 6,000 trillion kcal per year (Fig 3). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the united Nations, which has had elimination of waste as one of its mandates since it was founded in 1945, estimates the current food loss in calorific terms to be 24 percent of all the food produced. Further, researchers contend that if the current rate of food loss and waste were cut in half―from 24 percent to 12 percent―by the year 2050, the world would need to produce about 1,314 trillion kilocalories (kcal) less food per year than it would in the “business-as-usual global food requirements scenario”. These savings amount to roughly 22 percent of the 6,000 trillion kcal per year gap discussed above. Thus, reducing food waste will be crucial as we seek to plan for the future of food in 2050.

The strategies to eliminate food loss and waste must recognize the causes of the same and address them through those very causes - in short, as food loss is accrued across the value chain, the solutions will have to take a value chain approach as well. Rightly so, the SDG target 12.3 calls for halving global food waste at the retail and consumer levels, and reducing food losses along the value chain by 2030 in order to feed 10 billion people in 2050. This will need the collaboration of all public, private, and civil society actors, even though specific interventions needed in developing and developed countries will take diverse forms. In developing and emerging economies, this would require market-led large-scale investment in agricultural infrastructure, technological skills and knowledge, storage, transport and distribution. In the developed world, the potential of loss reduction lies with retailers, food services and consumers - cultural and behavioral shifts will have to be encouraged through education and improved food labelling. However, policy-makers at the local level will have to take the onus in bringing about this shift both in developed and developed economies- to be able to achieve large scale global impact, the solution to eliminate waste will have to be local.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The innovations of alternative farming, the agriculture products of small holding farmers shall be more exposed to the market. The small holding farmers shall develop skills, knowledge and expertise to readily access the information resulting functional and fair marketing for their products, enhanced health-care and sanitation and more opportunities for education and training. They would be more confident with greater expectation that small-scale agriculturists could achieve higher income and that the livelihoods of small-holder families (under BOP) and communities would be enhanced steadily.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

After going through the innovations of alternative farming, the agriculture products of small holding farmers shall be more exposed to the market. The small holding farmers shall develop skills, knowledge and expertise to readily access the information resulting functional and fair marketing for their products, enhanced health-care and sanitation and more opportunities for education and training. They would be more confident with greater expectation that small-scale agriculturists could achieve higher income and that the livelihoods of small-holder families (under BOP) and communities would be enhanced steadily.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

 India’s economy which is undoubtedly agriculture and strength of the Indian economy derives from its rural economy. Small Holder farmers are defined as marginal and sub-marginal households who happen own and/or cultivate less than 2.0 hectares of land- and it constitutes about 78 percent of country’s total agriculturists. (Agriculture Census 1990-91). Strikingly, these small-holders own only 33 % of total titled land in India. But they contribute to household food security in major way. They are poverty-stricken and alleviation of poverty is on top most priority. Further, as national population increases, so does the number of small holdings increases for the obvious reasons of further fragmentation of titled land usage.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

 All over poverty - stricken countries. Small holding farmers are the real baseline of India’s economy which is undoubtedly agriculture and strength of the Indian economy derives from its rural economy. Small Holder farmers are defined as marginal and sub-marginal households who happen own and/or cultivate less than 2.0 hectares of land- and it constitutes about 78 percent of country’s total agriculturists. (Agriculture Census 1990-91). Strikingly, these small-holders own only 33 % of total titled land in India. But they contribute to household food security in major way. They are poverty-stricken and alleviation of poverty is on top most priority. Further, as national population increases, so does the number of small holdings increases for the obvious reasons of further fragmentation of titled land usage.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Project targets alleviation of root cause of poverty of small holding farmers in this part of the country learning of which can be utilized all over poverty - stricken countries. Small holding farmers are the real baseline of India’s economy which is undoubtedly agriculture and strength of the Indian economy derives from its rural economy. Small Holder farmers are defined as marginal and sub-marginal households who happen own and/or cultivate less than 2.0 hectares of land- and it constitutes about 78 percent of country’s total agriculturists. (Agriculture Census 1990-91). Strikingly, these small-holders own only 33 % of total titled land in India. But they contribute to household food security in major way. They are poverty-stricken and alleviation of poverty is on top most priority. Further, as national population increases, so does the number of small holdings increases for the obvious reasons of further fragmentation of titled land usage.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Farmers in the backward district of Nadia, West Bengal has been done with much scrutiny so as to ensure their seriousness to ‘walk along the pilot project’. Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Innovation as if to check and evaluate the real-life viability of the innovation in alleviation of the age old poverty of the small-holding farmers. Identification of 46 small-holding farmers in the backward district of Nadia, West Bengal has been done with much scrutiny so as to ensure their seriousness to ‘walk along the pilot project’. Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

 Verifying the innovation as if to check and evaluate the real-life viability of the innovation in alleviation of the age old poverty of the small-holding farmers. Identification of 46 small-holding farmers in the backward district of Nadia, West Bengal has been done with much scrutiny so as to ensure their seriousness to ‘walk along the pilot project’. Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

In other words, is testing and verifying the innovation as if to check and evaluate the real-life viability of the innovation in alleviation of the age old poverty of the small-holding farmers. Identification of 46 small-holding farmers in the backward district of Nadia, West Bengal has been done with much scrutiny so as to ensure their seriousness to ‘walk along the pilot project’. Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Identification of 46 small-holding farmers in the backward district of Nadia, West Bengal has been done with much scrutiny so as to ensure their seriousness to ‘walk along the pilot project’. Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

We are in the pilot project which is, in other words, is testing and verifying the innovation as if to check and evaluate the real-life viability of the innovation in alleviation of the age old poverty of the small-holding farmers. Identification of 46 small-holding farmers in the backward district of Nadia, West Bengal has been done with much scrutiny so as to ensure their seriousness to ‘walk along the pilot project’. Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Identification of 46 small-holding farmers in the backward district of Nadia, West Bengal has been done with much scrutiny so as to ensure their seriousness to ‘walk along the pilot project’. Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

We are in the pilot project which is, in other words, is testing and verifying the innovation as if to check and evaluate the real-life viability of the innovation in alleviation of the age old poverty of the small-holding farmers. Identification of 46 small-holding farmers in the backward district of Nadia, West Bengal has been done with much scrutiny so as to ensure their seriousness to ‘walk along the pilot project’. Training has been meted out to them as per the training calendar administering the innovative training developed with the active inputs from the doyen in the field. Feedback from the participating farmers is positive with slight fine tuning where needed by our experts. Soil test of the pilot land has been carried out from local university labs and the analysis of the soil test is being presently evaluated so as to ascertain the particular type of alternative cultivation in lieu of the traditional cultivation. Pilot project is on the right track as per the pert chart.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The phase-wise results and outcome are encouraging and indicates that measures undertaken are on the right track. The marginal, poor and small holding farmers are now capable to generate more income and in turn more savings and resultant investment in his holding.
Education, skills and change in attitude are undoubtedly crucial for improving existing traditional farm practices and the project experiments and result reveals that the “Sunny Din” project members are improving in all areas like generation of income, confidence to face any difficult and challenging situations etc.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The phase-wise results and outcome are encouraging and indicates that measures undertaken are on the right track. The marginal, poor and small holding farmers are now capable to generate more income and in turn more savings and resultant investment in his holding.
Education, skills and change in attitude are undoubtedly crucial for improving existing traditional farm practices and the project experiments and result reveals that the “Sunny Din” project members are improving in all areas like generation of income, confidence to face any difficult and challenging situations etc.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

After going through the innovations of alternative farming, the agriculture products of small holding farmers shall be more exposed to the market. The small holding farmers shall develop skills, knowledge and expertise to readily access the information resulting functional and fair marketing for their products, enhanced health-care and sanitation and more opportunities for education and training. They would be more confident with greater expectation that small-scale agriculturists could achieve higher income and that the livelihoods of small-holder families (under BOP) and communities would be enhanced steadily.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The phase-wise results and outcome are encouraging and indicates that measures undertaken are on the right track. The marginal, poor and small holding farmers are now capable to generate more income and in turn more savings and resultant investment in his holding.
Education, skills and change in attitude are undoubtedly crucial for improving existing traditional farm practices and the project experiments and result reveals that the “Sunny Din” project members are improving in all areas like generation of income, confidence to face any difficult and challenging situations etc.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

After going through the innovations of alternative farming, the agriculture products of small holding farmers shall be more exposed to the market. The small holding farmers shall develop skills, knowledge and expertise to readily access the information resulting functional and fair marketing for their products, enhanced health-care and sanitation and more opportunities for education and training. They would be more confident with greater expectation that small-scale agriculturists could achieve higher income and that the livelihoods of small-holder families (under BOP) and communities would be enhanced steadily.

Photo of Sarah Jack

My Husband divorce me for no reason, Thanks to Dr happy for bringing back my husband,and brought me great joy to my family once again, My name is crystal . i live in USA New Jersey, I`m happily married to a lovely and caring husband,with three kids A very big problem occurred in my family 2 weeks ago,between me and my husband so terrible that he took the case to court for a divorce he said that he never wanted to stay with me again,and that he did not love me anymore So he packed out of my house and made me and my children passed through several pain. I tried all my possible means to get him back,after much begging,but all to no avail and he confirmed it that he has made his decision,and he never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my husband So i explained every thing to her,so she told me that the only way i can get my husband back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for her too So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow her advice. Then she gave me the email address of the spell caster whom she visited.(happylovespell2@gmail.com}, So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address she gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my husband back the next day what an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my husband who did not call me for the past seven {2}weeks,gave me a call to inform me that he was coming back So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster . So, i will advice you out there to kindly visit Dr happy ,if you are in any condition like this,or you have any problem related to "bringing your ex back. So thanks to Dr happy for bringing back my husband,and brought great joy to my family once again. { happylovespell2@gmail.com }, Thanks you Dr happy, i will always be testifying about your good work. also call him on +2348133873774.your spell is really a 100% Guarantee sure and safe

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

After going through the innovations of alternative farming, the agriculture products of small holding farmers shall be more exposed to the market. The small holding farmers shall develop skills, knowledge and expertise to readily access the information resulting functional and fair marketing for their products, enhanced health-care and sanitation and more opportunities for education and training. They would be more confident with greater expectation that small-scale agriculturists could achieve higher income and that the livelihoods of small-holder families (under BOP) and communities would be enhanced steadily.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Project targets alleviation of root cause of poverty of small holding farmers in this part of the country learning of which can be utilized all over poverty - stricken countries. Small holding farmers are the real baseline of India’s economy which is undoubtedly agriculture and strength of the Indian economy derives from its rural economy. Small Holder farmers are defined as marginal and sub-marginal households who happen own and/or cultivate less than 2.0 hectares of land- and it constitutes about 78 percent of country’s total agriculturists. (Agriculture Census 1990-91). Strikingly, these small-holders own only 33 % of total titled land in India. But they contribute to household food security in major way. They are poverty-stricken and alleviation of poverty is on top most priority. Further, as national population increases, so does the number of small holdings increases for the obvious reasons of further fragmentation of titled land usage.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Project targets alleviation of root cause of poverty of small holding farmers in this part of the country learning of which can be utilized all over poverty - stricken countries. Small holding farmers are the real baseline of India’s economy which is undoubtedly agriculture and strength of the Indian economy derives from its rural economy. Small Holder farmers are defined as marginal and sub-marginal households who happen own and/or cultivate less than 2.0 hectares of land- and it constitutes about 78 percent of country’s total agriculturists. (Agriculture Census 1990-91). Strikingly, these small-holders own only 33 % of total titled land in India. But they contribute to household food security in major way. They are poverty-stricken and alleviation of poverty is on top most priority. Further, as national population increases, so does the number of small holdings increases for the obvious reasons of further fragmentation of titled land usage.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.

Photo of ADIS

Amplify Program is a great initiative that has brought a great impact to the small scale farmers and i believe this is the way forward to eradicate poverty and also reduce food wastage thus making the third world country food secure. Keep it the good work.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Agriculture is and will continue to be the main driver of country's economic growth with social justice. Our agriculture did extremely well and it was on the ascendancy till the mid nineties but after that the growth slowed down. Since 1996-97 the growth rate of agricultural GDP has been, on an average, 1.75 % per year in contrast with the rate of 4% that is required. On the other hand the farmer has been facing rising input costs, declining returns from the inputs, uncertain market, increasing role of market in agriculture and blurring of distinction between the domestic market and the international market. To assist the farmer in these changing contexts new strategies and innovative solutions are urgently required which in turn will require technological support. Hence the agricultural research system which generates technologies, has to conduct the business of agricultural research in an innovative way.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Economic growth with social justice. Our agriculture did extremely well and it was on the ascendancy till the mid nineties but after that the growth slowed down. Since 1996-97 the growth rate of agricultural GDP has been, on an average, 1.75 % per year in contrast with the rate of 4% that is required. On the other hand the farmer has been facing rising input costs, declining returns from the inputs, uncertain market, increasing role of market in agriculture and blurring of distinction between the domestic market and the international market. To assist the farmer in these changing contexts new strategies and innovative solutions are urgently required which in turn will require technological support. Hence the agricultural research system which generates technologies, has to conduct the business of agricultural research in an innovative way.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Agriculture is and will continue to be the main driver of country's economic growth with social justice. Our agriculture did extremely well and it was on the ascendancy till the mid nineties but after that the growth slowed down. Since 1996-97 the growth rate of agricultural GDP has been, on an average, 1.75 % per year in contrast with the rate of 4% that is required. On the other hand the farmer has been facing rising input costs, declining returns from the inputs, uncertain market, increasing role of market in agriculture and blurring of distinction between the domestic market and the international market. To assist the farmer in these changing contexts new strategies and innovative solutions are urgently required which in turn will require technological support. Hence the agricultural research system which generates technologies, has to conduct the business of agricultural research in an innovative way.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Agriculture is and will continue to be the main driver of country's economic growth with social justice. Our agriculture did extremely well and it was on the ascendancy till the mid nineties but after that the growth slowed down. Since 1996-97 the growth rate of agricultural GDP has been, on an average, 1.75 % per year in contrast with the rate of 4% that is required. On the other hand the farmer has been facing rising input costs, declining returns from the inputs, uncertain market, increasing role of market in agriculture and blurring of distinction between the domestic market and the international market. To assist the farmer in these changing contexts new strategies and innovative solutions are urgently required which in turn will require technological support. Hence the agricultural research system which generates technologies, has to conduct the business of agricultural research in an innovative way.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Agriculture is and will continue to be the main driver of country's economic growth with social justice. Our agriculture did extremely well and it was on the ascendancy till the mid nineties but after that the growth slowed down. Since 1996-97 the growth rate of agricultural GDP has been, on an average, 1.75 % per year in contrast with the rate of 4% that is required. On the other hand the farmer has been facing rising input costs, declining returns from the inputs, uncertain market, increasing role of market in agriculture and blurring of distinction between the domestic market and the international market. To assist the farmer in these changing contexts new strategies and innovative solutions are urgently required which in turn will require technological support. Hence the agricultural research system which generates technologies, has to conduct the business of agricultural research in an innovative way.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To give the agricultural research and technology development system an explicit development and business perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To give the agricultural research and technology development system an explicit development and business perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

In South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To give the agricultural research and technology development system an explicit development and business perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

In South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Agriculture is and will continue to be the main driver of country's economic growth with social justice. Our agriculture did extremely well and it was on the ascendancy till the mid nineties but after that the growth slowed down. Since 1996-97 the growth rate of agricultural GDP has been, on an average, 1.75 % per year in contrast with the rate of 4% that is required. On the other hand the farmer has been facing rising input costs, declining returns from the inputs, uncertain market, increasing role of market in agriculture and blurring of distinction between the domestic market and the international market. To assist the farmer in these changing contexts new strategies and innovative solutions are urgently required which in turn will require technological support. Hence the agricultural research system which generates technologies, has to conduct the business of agricultural research in an innovative way.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Agriculture is and will continue to be the main driver of country's economic growth with social justice. Our agriculture did extremely well and it was on the ascendancy till the mid nineties but after that the growth slowed down. Since 1996-97 the growth rate of agricultural GDP has been, on an average, 1.75 % per year in contrast with the rate of 4% that is required. On the other hand the farmer has been facing rising input costs, declining returns from the inputs, uncertain market, increasing role of market in agriculture and blurring of distinction between the domestic market and the international market. To assist the farmer in these changing contexts new strategies and innovative solutions are urgently required which in turn will require technological support. Hence the agricultural research system which generates technologies, has to conduct the business of agricultural research in an innovative way.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Agriculture is and will continue to be the main driver of country's economic growth with social justice. Our agriculture did extremely well and it was on the ascendancy till the mid nineties but after that the growth slowed down. Since 1996-97 the growth rate of agricultural GDP has been, on an average, 1.75 % per year in contrast with the rate of 4% that is required. On the other hand the farmer has been facing rising input costs, declining returns from the inputs, uncertain market, increasing role of market in agriculture and blurring of distinction between the domestic market and the international market. To assist the farmer in these changing contexts new strategies and innovative solutions are urgently required which in turn will require technological support. Hence the agricultural research system which generates technologies, has to conduct the business of agricultural research in an innovative way.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing.
Collaboration with companies on supply chains and farmer financing will help bring the successful technologies to commercial scale for greater impact. In addition, by connecting change agents across the region – researchers, importers, manufacturers, regional networks, governments and associations – through regional and national innovation hubs, the project will help create a sustainable network. The hubs will support the multi-stage challenge competitions for technology, which include business facilitation, proof of concept and exposure stages.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing.
Collaboration with companies on supply chains and farmer financing will help bring the successful technologies to commercial scale for greater impact. In addition, by connecting change agents across the region – researchers, importers, manufacturers, regional networks, governments and associations – through regional and national innovation hubs, the project will help create a sustainable network. The hubs will support the multi-stage challenge competitions for technology, which include business facilitation, proof of concept and exposure stages.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing.
Collaboration with companies on supply chains and farmer financing will help bring the successful technologies to commercial scale for greater impact. In addition, by connecting change agents across the region – researchers, importers, manufacturers, regional networks, governments and associations – through regional and national innovation hubs, the project will help create a sustainable network. The hubs will support the multi-stage challenge competitions for technology, which include business facilitation, proof of concept and exposure stages.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing.
Collaboration with companies on supply chains and farmer financing will help bring the successful technologies to commercial scale for greater impact. In addition, by connecting change agents across the region – researchers, importers, manufacturers, regional networks, governments and associations – through regional and national innovation hubs, the project will help create a sustainable network. The hubs will support the multi-stage challenge competitions for technology, which include business facilitation, proof of concept and exposure stages.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing.
Collaboration with companies on supply chains and farmer financing will help bring the successful technologies to commercial scale for greater impact. In addition, by connecting change agents across the region – researchers, importers, manufacturers, regional networks, governments and associations – through regional and national innovation hubs, the project will help create a sustainable network. The hubs will support the multi-stage challenge competitions for technology, which include business facilitation, proof of concept and exposure stages.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. 
Collaboration with companies on supply chains and farmer financing will help bring the successful technologies to commercial scale for greater impact. In addition, by connecting change agents across the region – researchers, importers, manufacturers, regional networks, governments and associations – through regional and national innovation hubs, the project will help create a sustainable network. The hubs will support the multi-stage challenge competitions for technology, which include business facilitation, proof of concept and exposure stages.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Agriculture feeds and clothes the world. Although the long-term effects of climate change are still largely unknown, scientists can observe short-term effects of climate change on crops and animals. In addition, scientists can prognosticate about the changes that are likely to occur in agriculture if global climate change causes changes in temperatures and rainfall. The National Climatic Data Center has published a FAQ on global warming that might be useful to read.

Crops

Data have shown that levels of atmospheric CO2 are increasing. Research is being conducted to determine what types of plant responses can be expected from these changes (see section on CO2 increase below). Others worry that climate change is going to permanently alter weather patterns, temperatures, and rainfall. NOAA data show that for much of the Southeast, annual average rainfall has been relatively constant or slowly increasing; air temperatures are slightly lower than 100 years ago. However, the frequency of rainfall events greater than 2 inches is increasing, leading to longer dry periods between rain events. Crop yields are likely affected by these changes to some extent already, but it is not clear if future changes will be catastrophic or not. Plants are surprisingly resilient, and can withstand a variety of conditions while still being productive. In addition, other factors such as location, soil fertility, crop varieties, and management practices will all affect future yields. Below we list some of the effects we could expect for agriculture due to various aspects of climate change.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Scientists are in agreement that the levels of atmospheric CO2 (carbon dioxide) have increased in recent years. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, they were measured at 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv); currently the levels are around 380 ppmv. These levels have been steadily increasing by 1.9 ppm yearly since the year 2000, largely as a result of fossil fuel burning. Carbon dioxide is critical to photosynthesis (and thus plant growth). Scientists agree that even small increases in carbon dioxide result in more plant growth. It is likely that higher levels of carbon dioxide will result in higher harvestable crop yields. However, this depends critically on the availability of sufficient water and nutrients necessary for plant growth. Some scientists believe that one drawback to this increased productivity will be crops with lower nutrient and protein levels. If true, this could have a significant, widespread impact on long-term human health if additional fertilizers were not incorporated into crop production.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To explore the “Sunny Din” project an introduction of innovation farming in small-holding farmers in the backward district of West Bengal i,e Purulia ,Bankura . Adding extra no. of mobile agriculture Clinic Van which is named name by “ Sunny Doot “ for covering newer area . Preparing a permanent seed bank and an innovating preservation for holding fruit and vegetables in certain time frame to go market .To develop delicate IT supporting system for 24 hours “Sunny Din” helpline beneficiaries and families of the bottom line . To tighten the arm of co – ordination team who will give the 360 degree support to “Sunny Din” beneficiaries and families of the bottom line .

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It is expected that increased air temperatures will cause more stress on livestock. Both humans and livestock are warm-blooded animals, so both are affected by increased heat and humidity. During stifling heat, livestock reproduction declines as well as their appetite. Decreased appetite will lengthen the time needed for the livestock to reach their target weight (most animals only eat about half of normal quantities when they are heat-stressed). Stress can also increase the incidence of sickness, decrease rates of reproduction, and increase fighting among animals in confinement. In some areas, night-time temperatures are even more above average than daytime temperatures during heat-waves, which has resulted in increased mortality rates. Despite the warmer winter temperatures, global warming could have a negative overall impact upon livestock.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Some scientists believe that climate change will lead to more extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include heat waves, droughts, strong winds, and heavy rains. Climate models do not do a good job of predicting how extreme weather events might change under global warming. For example, models do not agree on whether the number of hurricanes in a warmer world would be more or less than current values, but scientists generally feel that the strength of the largest hurricanes will increase. The length of the hurricane season could also increase. Observational changes in the number of tornadoes per year we see now may be due to increases in the number of people watching the skies and the growth of urban areas rather than any strict climate changes. It is not clear if observed changes in extreme weather events we see now are part of long natural cycles, or if they are in response to climate change. Nonetheless, all of these events can be detrimental to crop growth.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Agriculture is highly exposed to climate change, as farming activities directly depend on climatic conditions.

Agriculture also contributes to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

However, agriculture can also contribute to climate change mitigation by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and by sequestering carbon while maintaining food production.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The most serious climate change risk to the Indian economy and its people is the increased intensity, frequency and geographical coverage of drought. Higher temperatures, increased evapo-transpiration and decreased winter precipitation may bring about more droughts. The possibility of winter drought will increase in certain areas. Climate change is expected to increase the severity of flooding in many Indian river basins, especially those of the Godavari and Mahanadi along the eastern coast [7]. The third most important risk is that of cyclonic storms, storm surge and coastal inundation. A sea surface temperature rise of 2-4°C, as anticipated in the Indian ocean over the century, is expected to induce a 10-20 percent increase in cyclone intensity (National Disaster Management Authority, Government of India). The 1999 Odisha super-cyclone killed more than 10, 000 people and devastated buildings across 10 coastal and 6 inland districts. This disaster was due to the combination of storm surge, cyclonic winds and coastal flooding. The cyclone dumped heavy torrential rain over southeast India, causing record breaking flooding in the low-lying areas. The storm surge was 26 feet (8 meters). struck the coast of Odisha, traveling up to 20 km inland. 17,110 km² (6,600 mi²) of crops were destroyed, and an additional 90 million trees were either uprooted or had snapped.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Some predict positive impacts on agriculture from climate change like increased temperatures and higher carbon dioxide levels .Increased concentrations of CO2 may boost crop productivity, only where moisture is not a constraint. Higher levels of CO2 can stimulate photosynthesis in certain plants (30-100 per cent). Experimental observations confirm that when plants absorb more carbon grow bigger and more quickly. This is particularly true for C3 plants (so called because the product of their first biochemical reactions during photosynthesis has three carbon atoms). Increased CO2 tends to suppress photo-respiration in these plants, making them more water-efficient.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To explore the “Sunny Din” project an introduction of innovation farming in small-holding farmers in the backward district of West Bengal i,e Purulia ,Bankura . Adding extra no. of mobile agriculture Clinic Van which is named name by “ Sunny Doot “ for covering newer area . Preparing a permanent seed bank and an innovating preservation for holding fruit and vegetables in certain time frame to go market .To develop delicate IT supporting system for 24 hours “Sunny Din” helpline beneficiaries and families of the bottom line . To tighten the arm of co – ordination team who will give the 360 degree support to “Sunny Din” beneficiaries and families of the bottom line .

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It is possible that climate change may force the pace of rural-urban migration (rurbanisation) over the next few decades . The ongoing agrarian crisis in rural India could be catalyzed by climate change into a migratory rout, driven by greater monsoon variability, endemic drought, flooding and resource conflict.
The role of Science & Technology cannot be ignored. Right kind of technologies and policies are required to strengthen the capacity of communities to cope effectively with both climatic variability and changes .Adaptive actions may be taken to overcome adverse effects of climate change on agriculture. Innovative agricultural practices and technologies can play a role in climate mitigation and adaptation. This adaptation and mitigation potential is nowhere more pronounced than in developing countries where agricultural productivity remains low; poverty, vulnerability and food insecurity remain high; and the direct effects of climate change are expected to be especially harsh. Creating the necessary agricultural technologies and harnessing them to enable developing countries to adapt their agricultural systems to changing climate will require innovations in policy and institutions as well. In this context, institutions and policies are important at multiple scales.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

A 10-15% increase in monsoon precipitation in many regions, a simultaneous precipitation decline of 5-25% in drought-prone central India and a sharp decline in winter rainfall in northern India are also projected. This implies changes in output of winter wheat and mustard crops in northwestern India. A decrease in number of rainy days (5-15 days on an average) is expected over much of India, along with an increase in heavy rainfall days in the monsoon season (Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India). These changes are expected to increase the vulnerability of Indian agriculture. This is particularly important in India, where agriculture .

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The role of small farms in
development and poverty reduction is
well recognized. The global experience
of growth and poverty reduction shows
that GDP growth originating in
agriculture is at least twice as effective
in reducing poverty as GDP growth
originating outside agriculture. Small
holdings play important role in raising
agricultural development and poverty
reduction. The highest growth rate of
GDP from agriculture and allied
activities of 23.9 per cent per annum in
recent years was recorded in the period
2002-03 to 2010-11 . If we look at
decadal average 1980s recorded the
highest growth rate of more than 3 per
cent per annum. In the post-reform
period, it declined to 2.76 per cent per
annum. The deceleration in the growth
rate of GDP from agriculture between
the first half of the 1990s and the later
period is glaring. It is disquieting to
note that during the 2007-08 to 2014–
15, agriculture growth was only

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The role of small farms in
development and poverty reduction is
well recognized. The global experience
of growth and poverty reduction shows
that GDP growth originating in
agriculture is at least twice as effective
in reducing poverty as GDP growth
originating outside agriculture. Small
holdings play important role in raising
agricultural development and poverty
reduction. The highest growth rate of
GDP from agriculture and allied
activities of 23.9 per cent per annum in
recent years was recorded in the period
2002-03 to 2010-11 . If we look at
decadal average 1980s recorded the
highest growth rate of more than 3 per
cent per annum. In the post-reform
period, it declined to 2.76 per cent per
annum. The deceleration in the growth
rate of GDP from agriculture between
the first half of the 1990s and the later
period is glaring. It is disquieting to
note that during the 2007-08 to 2014–
15, agriculture growth was only

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The role of small farms in
development and poverty reduction is
well recognized. The global experience
of growth and poverty reduction shows
that GDP growth originating in
agriculture is at least twice as effective
in reducing poverty as GDP growth
originating outside agriculture. Small
holdings play important role in raising
agricultural development and poverty
reduction. The highest growth rate of
GDP from agriculture and allied
activities of 23.9 per cent per annum in
recent years was recorded in the period
2002-03 to 2010-11 . If we look at
decadal average 1980s recorded the
highest growth rate of more than 3 per
cent per annum. In the post-reform
period, it declined to 2.76 per cent per
annum. The deceleration in the growth
rate of GDP from agriculture between
the first half of the 1990s and the later
period is glaring. It is disquieting to
note that during the 2007-08 to 2014–
15, agriculture growth was only

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The role of small farms in
development and poverty reduction is
well recognized. The global experience
of growth and poverty reduction shows
that GDP growth originating in
agriculture is at least twice as effective
in reducing poverty as GDP growth
originating outside agriculture. Small
holdings play important role in raising
agricultural development and poverty
reduction. The highest growth rate of
GDP from agriculture and allied
activities of 23.9 per cent per annum in
recent years was recorded in the period
2002-03 to 2010-11 . If we look at
decadal average 1980s recorded the
highest growth rate of more than 3 per
cent per annum. In the post-reform
period, it declined to 2.76 per cent per
annum. The deceleration in the growth
rate of GDP from agriculture between
the first half of the 1990s and the later
period is glaring. It is disquieting to
note that during the 2007-08 to 2014–
15, agriculture growth was only

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture
which is the focus of this paper is
important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in
India. It may be noted that Indian
agriculture is the home of small and
marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the
future of sustainable agriculture growth
and food security in India depends on
the performance of small and marginal
farmers. Agricultural Census data
shows that there were about 121 million
agricultural holdings in India in 2000-
01. Around 99 million were small and
marginal farmers. Average size has
declined from 2.3 ha. In 1990-91 to 1.37
ha. In 2010-11. Small and marginal
farmers account for more than 80% of
total farm hrs. But their share in
operated area is around 44%. Thus,
there are significant land inequalities in
India.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The role of small farms in
development and poverty reduction is
well recognized. The global experience
of growth and poverty reduction shows
that GDP growth originating in
agriculture is at least twice as effective
in reducing poverty as GDP growth
originating outside agriculture. Small
holdings play important role in raising
agricultural development and poverty
reduction. The highest growth rate of
GDP from agriculture and allied
activities of 23.9 per cent per annum in
recent years was recorded in the period
2002-03 to 2010-11 . If we look at
decadal average 1980s recorded the
highest growth rate of more than 3 per
cent per annum. In the post-reform
period, it declined to 2.76 per cent per
annum. The deceleration in the growth
rate of GDP from agriculture between
the first half of the 1990s and the later
period is glaring. It is disquieting to
note that during the 2007-08 to 2014–
15, agriculture growth was only

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture
which is the focus of this paper is
important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in
India. It may be noted that Indian
agriculture is the home of small and
marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the
future of sustainable agriculture growth
and food security in India depends on
the performance of small and marginal
farmers. Agricultural Census data
shows that there were about 121 million
agricultural holdings in India in 2000-
01. Around 99 million were small and
marginal farmers. Average size has
declined from 2.3 ha. In 1990-91 to 1.37
ha. In 2010-11. Small and marginal
farmers account for more than 80% of
total farm hrs. But their share in
operated area is around 44%. Thus,
there are significant land inequalities in
India.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Additionally, rural investment - as in road, transport, water-impoundment, market,
information, and communications infrastructures - is cost-effective; and notably so in
non-irrigated areas. Correspondingly, rural development and rural-employment
generation each require an investment in human resources and in skills strengthening,
and in education and other social services. With upgraded infra-structures and
strengthened human resources as an attractant, new enterprises and rural-finance
agencies would expect to avail quickly of promising operational opportunities. It is thus
here pertinent to reiterate that the cost of a rural workplace is substantially less than the
cost of an urban workplace

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small farms throughout the U.S. are looking for creative ways to set themselves apart from the massive agribusinesses that dominate the nation's produce aisles.

As family operations find that survival requires more than just selling crops, they're cashing in where the corporate giants can't by giving a the public a chance to share the experience and flavor of small farm life.

Across the nation, small farms are selling products such as jam, olive oil and lemonade. And they're writing books, hosting dinners and renting rooms.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Additionally, rural investment - as in road, transport, water-impoundment, market,
information, and communications infrastructures - is cost-effective; and notably so in
non-irrigated areas. Correspondingly, rural development and rural-employment
generation each require an investment in human resources and in skills strengthening,
and in education and other social services. With upgraded infra-structures and
strengthened human resources as an attractant, new enterprises and rural-finance
agencies would expect to avail quickly of promising operational opportunities. It is thus
here pertinent to reiterate that the cost of a rural workplace is substantially less than the
cost of an urban workplace

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Smaller-size holdings increased very substantially between 1971 and 1991: proportionate contribution to sugarcane production increasing from 29 to 46 per cent, and for jute from 47 to 65 per cent. Similarly, smaller-size holdings were the major producers of vegetables and fruits, contributing 51 per cent of the production in 1991. The increasing importance of smallholder agriculture to national production and to food security is clearly manifest.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

49
These families’ options for earning such cash are to sell their unused labour, and/or (if
owning land) to intensify, expand, or diversify their more-productive own-farm
activities. Thus, in the national interests - including the interest that rural poverty should
not be transformed into urban destitution - mechanisms that generate rural on- farm, offfarm,
and on-off-farm employment, and that include a component of risk-management
insurance to complement the Public Distribution System, should be promoted
vigorously.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

49
These families’ options for earning such cash are to sell their unused labour, and/or (if
owning land) to intensify, expand, or diversify their more-productive own-farm
activities. Thus, in the national interests - including the interest that rural poverty should
not be transformed into urban destitution - mechanisms that generate rural on- farm, offfarm,
and on-off-farm employment, and that include a component of risk-management
insurance to complement the Public Distribution System, should be promoted
vigorously.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Smaller-size holdings increased very
substantially between 1971 and 1991: proportionate contribution to sugarcane
production increasing from 29 to 46 per cent, and for jute from 47 to 65 per cent.
Similarly, smaller-size holdings were the major producers of vegetables and fruits,
contributing 51 per cent of the production in 1991. The increasing importance of smallholder
agriculture to national production and to food security is clearly manifest.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There is thus
some slight evidence that the smaller farms intensified somewhat more than the larger
farms; the large farms nonetheless intensified creditably. However, the trend to smaller
farm-size, and the somewhat greater intensification (and possibly greater diversification)
achieved on the smaller farms, together suggest that the small and marginal holdings
may expect to play a prominent part in modernizing Indian farming procedures and in
achieving increased and sustainable productivity and profitability.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There is thus
some slight evidence that the smaller farms intensified somewhat more than the larger
farms; the large farms nonetheless intensified creditably. However, the trend to smaller
farm-size, and the somewhat greater intensification (and possibly greater diversification)
achieved on the smaller farms, together suggest that the small and marginal holdings
may expect to play a prominent part in modernizing Indian farming procedures and in
achieving increased and sustainable productivity and profitability.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There is thus
some slight evidence that the smaller farms intensified somewhat more than the larger
farms; the large farms nonetheless intensified creditably. However, the trend to smaller
farm-size, and the somewhat greater intensification (and possibly greater diversification)
achieved on the smaller farms, together suggest that the small and marginal holdings
may expect to play a prominent part in modernizing Indian farming procedures and in
achieving increased and sustainable productivity and profitability.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small- holder farmers are vital for India’s agriculture and rural economy. Small-holder
farmers - defined as those marginal and sub-marginal farm households that own or/and
cultivate less than 2.0 hectare of land - constitute about 78 per cent of the country’s
farmers (at Agricultural Census 1990-91). These small-holders owned only 33 per cent
of the total cultivated land; their contribution to national grain production was
nonetheless 41 per cent. Their contribution to household food security and poverty
alleviation is thus dis-proportionately high - and is increasing. Moreover, as the
nationa l population increases, so does the number of small-holdings.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small- holder farmers are vital for India’s agriculture and rural economy. Small-holder
farmers - defined as those marginal and sub-marginal farm households that own or/and
cultivate less than 2.0 hectare of land - constitute about 78 per cent of the country’s
farmers (at Agricultural Census 1990-91). These small-holders owned only 33 per cent
of the total cultivated land; their contribution to national grain production was
nonetheless 41 per cent. Their contribution to household food security and poverty
alleviation is thus dis-proportionately high - and is increasing. Moreover, as the
nationa l population increases, so does the number of small-holdings.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small- holder farmers are vital for India’s agriculture and rural economy. Small-holder
farmers - defined as those marginal and sub-marginal farm households that own or/and
cultivate less than 2.0 hectare of land - constitute about 78 per cent of the country’s
farmers (at Agricultural Census 1990-91). These small-holders owned only 33 per cent
of the total cultivated land; their contribution to national grain production was
nonetheless 41 per cent. Their contribution to household food security and poverty
alleviation is thus dis-proportionately high - and is increasing. Moreover, as the
nationa l population increases, so does the number of small-holdings.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small- holder families constitute more than half of the national population. It is thus
disappointing that notwithstanding their substantial and increasing contribution to the
national food supply and to agricultural GDP, these small- holder families nonetheless
constitute more than half of the nation’s totals of hungry and poor. Policies and
programmes to lessen poverty and food insecurity, and to enhance equity and
sustainability of incomes and livelihoods, should thus seek to achieve an agriculture-led
broad-based economic development - and to do so by according highest priority to
small-scale agriculture.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small- holder farmers are vital for India’s agriculture and rural economy. Small-holder
farmers - defined as those marginal and sub-marginal farm households that own or/and
cultivate less than 2.0 hectare of land - constitute about 78 per cent of the country’s
farmers (at Agricultural Census 1990-91). These small-holders owned only 33 per cent
of the total cultivated land; their contribution to national grain production was
nonetheless 41 per cent. Their contribution to household food security and poverty
alleviation is thus dis-proportionately high - and is increasing. Moreover, as the
nationa l population increases, so does the number of small-holdings.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small- holder farmers are vital for India’s agriculture and rural economy. Small-holder
farmers - defined as those marginal and sub-marginal farm households that own or/and
cultivate less than 2.0 hectare of land - constitute about 78 per cent of the country’s
farmers (at Agricultural Census 1990-91). These small-holders owned only 33 per cent
of the total cultivated land; their contribution to national grain production was
nonetheless 41 per cent. Their contribution to household food security and poverty
alleviation is thus dis-proportionately high - and is increasing. Moreover, as the
nationa l population increases, so does the number of small-holdings.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small- holder families constitute more than half of the national population. It is thus
disappointing that notwithstanding their substantial and increasing contribution to the
national food supply and to agricultural GDP, these small- holder families nonetheless
constitute more than half of the nation’s totals of hungry and poor. Policies and
programmes to lessen poverty and food insecurity, and to enhance equity and
sustainability of incomes and livelihoods, should thus seek to achieve an agriculture-led
broad-based economic development - and to do so by according highest priority to
small-scale agriculture.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small- holder families constitute more than half of the national population. It is thus
disappointing that notwithstanding their substantial and increasing contribution to the
national food supply and to agricultural GDP, these small- holder families nonetheless
constitute more than half of the nation’s totals of hungry and poor. Policies and
programmes to lessen poverty and food insecurity, and to enhance equity and
sustainability of incomes and livelihoods, should thus seek to achieve an agriculture-led
broad-based economic development - and to do so by according highest priority to
small-scale agriculture.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small- holder families constitute more than half of the national population. It is thus
disappointing that notwithstanding their substantial and increasing contribution to the
national food supply and to agricultural GDP, these small- holder families nonetheless
constitute more than half of the nation’s totals of hungry and poor. Policies and
programmes to lessen poverty and food insecurity, and to enhance equity and
sustainability of incomes and livelihoods, should thus seek to achieve an agriculture-led
broad-based economic development - and to do so by according highest priority to
small-scale agriculture.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

These resources are several: land, water, energy, and credit; appropriate technologies,
and opportunities to develop the skills and to access the information wherewith to use
them; functional and fair markets for products and inputs; health care and sanitation; and
education and reproductive and social services. Given the national and international
policies that facilitate access to such resources, there would be confident expectation
that small-scale agriculture could and would achieve higher production and income and
that the livelihoods of small-holder families and communities would be enhanced.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

These resources are several: land, water, energy, and credit; appropriate technologies,
and opportunities to develop the skills and to access the information wherewith to use
them; functional and fair markets for products and inputs; health care and sanitation; and
education and reproductive and social services. Given the national and international
policies that facilitate access to such resources, there would be confident expectation
that small-scale agriculture could and would achieve higher production and income and
that the livelihoods of small-holder families and communities would be enhanced.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

These resources are several: land, water, energy, and credit; appropriate technologies,
and opportunities to develop the skills and to access the information wherewith to use
them; functional and fair markets for products and inputs; health care and sanitation; and
education and reproductive and social services. Given the national and international
policies that facilitate access to such resources, there would be confident expectation
that small-scale agriculture could and would achieve higher production and income and
that the livelihoods of small-holder families and communities would be enhanced.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

How can the requisite empowerment be accomplished, and the small- holders enabled to
accept the challenges and opportunities of bio-technology, of informatics, and of
globalization? What socio-economic policies shall facilitate the empowerment? The
latter sections of this paper respond to these questions. Earlier sections report the
preparatory analyses - of small- holder operations and contributions to household and to
national food security - wherewith to frame that response.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

These resources are several: land, water, energy, and credit; appropriate technologies,
and opportunities to develop the skills and to access the information wherewith to use
them; functional and fair markets for products and inputs; health care and sanitation; and
education and reproductive and social services. Given the national and international
policies that facilitate access to such resources, there would be confident expectation
that small-scale agriculture could and would achieve higher production and income and
that the livelihoods of small-holder families and communities would be enhanced.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

How can the requisite empowerment be accomplished, and the small- holders enabled to
accept the challenges and opportunities of bio-technology, of informatics, and of
globalization? What socio-economic policies shall facilitate the empowerment? The
latter sections of this paper respond to these questions. Earlier sections report the
preparatory analyses - of small- holder operations and contributions to household and to
national food security - wherewith to frame that response.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

How can the requisite empowerment be accomplished, and the small- holders enabled to
accept the challenges and opportunities of bio-technology, of informatics, and of
globalization? What socio-economic policies shall facilitate the empowerment? The
latter sections of this paper respond to these questions. Earlier sections report the
preparatory analyses - of small- holder operations and contributions to household and to
national food security - wherewith to frame that response.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

How can the requisite empowerment be accomplished, and the small- holders enabled to
accept the challenges and opportunities of bio-technology, of informatics, and of
globalization? What socio-economic policies shall facilitate the empowerment? The
latter sections of this paper respond to these questions. Earlier sections report the
preparatory analyses - of small- holder operations and contributions to household and to
national food security - wherewith to frame that response.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The questions are here posed: is the continuance of Indian hunger and poverty a
consequence of the smallness of the preponderant majority of the nation’s farms? . . . or
may the productivity of those small farms be so increased as to allow the small-holder
families - and the nation with them - to escape from hunger and poverty? We shall
reason in support of the second (hopeful) option. But the hope will be realized only
when the small-holders are empowered to access the crucial production resources.
These resources are several: land, water, energy, and credit; appropriate technologies,
and opportunities to develop the skills and to access the information wherewith to use
them; functional and fair markets for products and inputs; health care and sanitation; and
education and reproductive and social services. Given the national and international
policies that facilitate access to such resources, there would be confident expectation
that small-scale agriculture could and would achieve higher production and income and
that the livelihoods of small-holder families and communities would be enhanced.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The questions are here posed: is the continuance of Indian hunger and poverty a
consequence of the smallness of the preponderant majority of the nation’s farms? . . . or
may the productivity of those small farms be so increased as to allow the small-holder
families - and the nation with them - to escape from hunger and poverty? We shall
reason in support of the second (hopeful) option. But the hope will be realized only
when the small-holders are empowered to access the crucial production resources.
These resources are several: land, water, energy, and credit; appropriate technologies,
and opportunities to develop the skills and to access the information wherewith to use
them; functional and fair markets for products and inputs; health care and sanitation; and
education and reproductive and social services. Given the national and international
policies that facilitate access to such resources, there would be confident expectation
that small-scale agriculture could and would achieve higher production and income and
that the livelihoods of small-holder families and communities would be enhanced.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The questions are here posed: is the continuance of Indian hunger and poverty a
consequence of the smallness of the preponderant majority of the nation’s farms? . . . or
may the productivity of those small farms be so increased as to allow the small-holder
families - and the nation with them - to escape from hunger and poverty? We shall
reason in support of the second (hopeful) option. But the hope will be realized only
when the small-holders are empowered to access the crucial production resources.
These resources are several: land, water, energy, and credit; appropriate technologies,
and opportunities to develop the skills and to access the information wherewith to use
them; functional and fair markets for products and inputs; health care and sanitation; and
education and reproductive and social services. Given the national and international
policies that facilitate access to such resources, there would be confident expectation
that small-scale agriculture could and would achieve higher production and income and
that the livelihoods of small-holder families and communities would be enhanced.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Along with all of the hard thinking and productivity, Farm Hacks always wind down with good food and good drink. This is an important ingredient, that the engineers and other, non-farm team mates understand clearly that this work isn’t about high pay per hour invested, instead that it is about satisfying relationships, delicious food, resiliency, network-building, and collaboration.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The questions are here posed: is the continuance of Indian hunger and poverty a
consequence of the smallness of the preponderant majority of the nation’s farms? . . . or
may the productivity of those small farms be so increased as to allow the small-holder
families - and the nation with them - to escape from hunger and poverty? We shall
reason in support of the second (hopeful) option. But the hope will be realized only
when the small-holders are empowered to access the crucial production resources.
These resources are several: land, water, energy, and credit; appropriate technologies,
and opportunities to develop the skills and to access the information wherewith to use
them; functional and fair markets for products and inputs; health care and sanitation; and
education and reproductive and social services. Given the national and international
policies that facilitate access to such resources, there would be confident expectation
that small-scale agriculture could and would achieve higher production and income and
that the livelihoods of small-holder families and communities would be enhanced.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The questions are here posed: is the continuance of Indian hunger and poverty a
consequence of the smallness of the preponderant majority of the nation’s farms? . . . or
may the productivity of those small farms be so increased as to allow the small-holder
families - and the nation with them - to escape from hunger and poverty? We shall
reason in support of the second (hopeful) option. But the hope will be realized only
when the small-holders are empowered to access the crucial production resources.
These resources are several: land, water, energy, and credit; appropriate technologies,
and opportunities to develop the skills and to access the information wherewith to use
them; functional and fair markets for products and inputs; health care and sanitation; and
education and reproductive and social services. Given the national and international
policies that facilitate access to such resources, there would be confident expectation
that small-scale agriculture could and would achieve higher production and income and
that the livelihoods of small-holder families and communities would be enhanced.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Along with all of the hard thinking and productivity, Farm Hacks always wind down with good food and good drink. This is an important ingredient, that the engineers and other, non-farm team mates understand clearly that this work isn’t about high pay per hour invested, instead that it is about satisfying relationships, delicious food, resiliency, network-building, and collaboration.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Along with all of the hard thinking and productivity, Farm Hacks always wind down with good food and good drink. This is an important ingredient, that the engineers and other, non-farm team mates understand clearly that this work isn’t about high pay per hour invested, instead that it is about satisfying relationships, delicious food, resiliency, network-building, and collaboration.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Along with all of the hard thinking and productivity, Farm Hacks always wind down with good food and good drink. This is an important ingredient, that the engineers and other, non-farm team mates understand clearly that this work isn’t about high pay per hour invested, instead that it is about satisfying relationships, delicious food, resiliency, network-building, and collaboration.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Along with all of the hard thinking and productivity, Farm Hacks always wind down with good food and good drink. This is an important ingredient, that the engineers and other, non-farm team mates understand clearly that this work isn’t about high pay per hour invested, instead that it is about satisfying relationships, delicious food, resiliency, network-building, and collaboration.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

This winter, we hope to buckle down on our projects, using the lull of cold weather to wrap up loose ends, return to the bright ideas brainstormed through the season, and document, document, document. Though Farm Hack is still a young community, we have a big vision for expanding the functionality of farmhack.net, growing our network of farm hackers, connecting farmers to seed money to develop and document their innovation ideas, and forming documentation fellows to preserve and share the vast number of tools, old and new, already in existence that can be of use to small farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

This winter, we hope to buckle down on our projects, using the lull of cold weather to wrap up loose ends, return to the bright ideas brainstormed through the season, and document, document, document. Though Farm Hack is still a young community, we have a big vision for expanding the functionality of farmhack.net, growing our network of farm hackers, connecting farmers to seed money to develop and document their innovation ideas, and forming documentation fellows to preserve and share the vast number of tools, old and new, already in existence that can be of use to small farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

This winter, we hope to buckle down on our projects, using the lull of cold weather to wrap up loose ends, return to the bright ideas brainstormed through the season, and document, document, document. Though Farm Hack is still a young community, we have a big vision for expanding the functionality of farmhack.net, growing our network of farm hackers, connecting farmers to seed money to develop and document their innovation ideas, and forming documentation fellows to preserve and share the vast number of tools, old and new, already in existence that can be of use to small farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

This is particularly important for today’s startup farmers, many of who are not employing laborers, are repairing older equipment, are running diversified farms, and trying to stay as cost competitive as they can with the global economy. It makes business sense to adapt new labor-saving devices, and particularly ones that aren’t too expensive to hack together. Acquiring the skills to build, repair and adapt is a great asset to all farmers, and a growing strength of many in the young farmers movement. Farm Hack facilitates collaboration between advanced designers and old-timer fabricator neighbors, educating beginning farm-shop users, and connecting everyone involved in the goal of the project.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

This is particularly important for today’s startup farmers, many of who are not employing laborers, are repairing older equipment, are running diversified farms, and trying to stay as cost competitive as they can with the global economy. It makes business sense to adapt new labor-saving devices, and particularly ones that aren’t too expensive to hack together. Acquiring the skills to build, repair and adapt is a great asset to all farmers, and a growing strength of many in the young farmers movement. Farm Hack facilitates collaboration between advanced designers and old-timer fabricator neighbors, educating beginning farm-shop users, and connecting everyone involved in the goal of the project.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Large Cold Storage Facilities For Storage Of Vegetables Are Out Of Reach And Unaffordable For The Small And Marginal Farmers. The Chiller Is A Cost Effective And Ultra-low Energy Consuming Storage Device And Consists Of Three Units Evaporative Cooler, Sub Cooler And A Food Storage Cabin. It Uses Phase Change Material (pcm), Which Acts As An Effective Medium Of Passive Cooling System, Absorbing Heat Until It Reaches Its Melting Point And Changes Its Phase From Solid To Liquid. The Device Consumes Power Only For Charging The Liquid Pcm I.e. Converting It Back Into Solid State, Which Can Be Done During Night Times (off-peak) Within 1-2 Hours. Thus Such Food Chillers Can Efficiently Operate In Regions

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Farmers have long been tinkering, designing and building farm technology on their farms and sharing it with neighbors. However, with the rise of industrial agriculture, the culture of on-farm tinkering, resourcefulness and scrappy adaptation was replaced with expensive, high-tech farm machinery. The goal of Farm Hack is to rejuvenate the historically rich culture of on-farm innovation, sharing and collaborative design and move it forward in support of a more resilient agricultural system.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Large Cold Storage Facilities For Storage Of Vegetables Are Out Of Reach And Unaffordable For The Small And Marginal Farmers. The Chiller Is A Cost Effective And Ultra-low Energy Consuming Storage Device And Consists Of Three Units Evaporative Cooler, Sub Cooler And A Food Storage Cabin. It Uses Phase Change Material (pcm), Which Acts As An Effective Medium Of Passive Cooling System, Absorbing Heat Until It Reaches Its Melting Point And Changes Its Phase From Solid To Liquid. The Device Consumes Power Only For Charging The Liquid Pcm I.e. Converting It Back Into Solid State, Which Can Be Done During Night Times (off-peak) Within 1-2 Hours. Thus Such Food Chillers Can Efficiently Operate In Regions

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Large Cold Storage Facilities For Storage Of Vegetables Are Out Of Reach And Unaffordable For The Small And Marginal Farmers. The Chiller Is A Cost Effective And Ultra-low Energy Consuming Storage Device And Consists Of Three Units Evaporative Cooler, Sub Cooler And A Food Storage Cabin. It Uses Phase Change Material (pcm), Which Acts As An Effective Medium Of Passive Cooling System, Absorbing Heat Until It Reaches Its Melting Point And Changes Its Phase From Solid To Liquid. The Device Consumes Power Only For Charging The Liquid Pcm I.e. Converting It Back Into Solid State, Which Can Be Done During Night Times (off-peak) Within 1-2 Hours. Thus Such Food Chillers Can Efficiently Operate In Regions

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Large Cold Storage Facilities For Storage Of Vegetables Are Out Of Reach And Unaffordable For The Small And Marginal Farmers. The Chiller Is A Cost Effective And Ultra-low Energy Consuming Storage Device And Consists Of Three Units Evaporative Cooler, Sub Cooler And A Food Storage Cabin. It Uses Phase Change Material (pcm), Which Acts As An Effective Medium Of Passive Cooling System, Absorbing Heat Until It Reaches Its Melting Point And Changes Its Phase From Solid To Liquid. The Device Consumes Power Only For Charging The Liquid Pcm I.e. Converting It Back Into Solid State, Which Can Be Done During Night Times (off-peak) Within 1-2 Hours. Thus Such Food Chillers Can Efficiently Operate In Regions

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Large Cold Storage Facilities For Storage Of Vegetables Are Out Of Reach And Unaffordable For The Small And Marginal Farmers. The Chiller Is A Cost Effective And Ultra-low Energy Consuming Storage Device And Consists Of Three Units Evaporative Cooler, Sub Cooler And A Food Storage Cabin. It Uses Phase Change Material (pcm), Which Acts As An Effective Medium Of Passive Cooling System, Absorbing Heat Until It Reaches Its Melting Point And Changes Its Phase From Solid To Liquid. The Device Consumes Power Only For Charging The Liquid Pcm I.e. Converting It Back Into Solid State, Which Can Be Done During Night Times (off-peak) Within 1-2 Hours. Thus Such Food Chillers Can Efficiently Operate In Regions

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To give the agricultural research and technology development system an explicit development and business perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.
Develop well-tested models for application of agricultural research and technology for profitability of farming, income generation and poverty alleviation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To give the agricultural research and technology development system an explicit development and business perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.
Develop well-tested models for application of agricultural research and technology for profitability of farming, income generation and poverty alleviation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To give the agricultural research and technology development system an explicit development and business perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.
Develop well-tested models for application of agricultural research and technology for profitability of farming, income generation and poverty alleviation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Large Cold Storage Facilities For Storage Of Vegetables Are Out Of Reach And Unaffordable For The Small And Marginal Farmers. The Chiller Is A Cost Effective And Ultra-low Energy Consuming Storage Device And Consists Of Three Units Evaporative Cooler, Sub Cooler And A Food Storage Cabin. It Uses Phase Change Material (pcm), Which Acts As An Effective Medium Of Passive Cooling System, Absorbing Heat Until It Reaches Its Melting Point And Changes Its Phase From Solid To Liquid. The Device Consumes Power Only For Charging The Liquid Pcm I.e. Converting It Back Into Solid State, Which Can Be Done During Night Times (off-peak) Within 1-2 Hours. Thus Such Food Chillers Can Efficiently Operate In Regions

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To give the agricultural research and technology development system an explicit development and business perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.
Develop well-tested models for application of agricultural research and technology for profitability of farming, income generation and poverty alleviation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The collaboration originated during the European Union project EAU4Food, for which a Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the CSIR and LDARD,” says Nebo. The team introduced innovative farming in small-holder irrigation farms in Limpopo: The use of drip irrigation systems to irrigate three vegetable crops per year using improved farming practices, such as high-yielding varieties appealing to the market, scientific irrigation scheduling, fertilisation based on soil analyses and in situ available resources for mulching and organic fertiliser (manure, compost and biochar).

“What made this project unique was the huge increase in crop yield in the context of small farming: From 10 - 20 tons per hectare to 60 - 80 tons per hectare of A grade tomatoes,” says Constansia. “The implementation of a package of innovations to support emerging irrigation farmers, the demonstration of real-world on-farm experiments, the use of resources available in situ on farms such as grasses for mulch, compost and biochar for fertilisation, as well as the active participation of the community through a trans-disciplinary approach, set this project apart

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

To give the agricultural research and technology development system an explicit development and business perspective through innovative models. In other words, the agricultural research system should be able to support agriculture as a business venture and also as a means of security of livelihood of the rural Indian while maintaining excellence in science.
To make the National Agricultural Research System a 'pluralistic' system where every Organisation having stake in agricultural research: public, private or civil society, has to play a role.
Working in well defined partnership groups with clear common goals and understanding on sharing responsibilities and benefits.
Funding through competition so that a wide choice of excellent innovative ideas come in from the stakeholders themselves.
Work with focus, plan and time frames.
Develop well-tested models for application of agricultural research and technology for profitability of farming, income generation and poverty alleviation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The collaboration originated during the European Union project EAU4Food, for which a Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the CSIR and LDARD,” says Nebo. The team introduced innovative farming in small-holder irrigation farms in Limpopo: The use of drip irrigation systems to irrigate three vegetable crops per year using improved farming practices, such as high-yielding varieties appealing to the market, scientific irrigation scheduling, fertilisation based on soil analyses and in situ available resources for mulching and organic fertiliser (manure, compost and biochar).

“What made this project unique was the huge increase in crop yield in the context of small farming: From 10 - 20 tons per hectare to 60 - 80 tons per hectare of A grade tomatoes,” says Constansia. “The implementation of a package of innovations to support emerging irrigation farmers, the demonstration of real-world on-farm experiments, the use of resources available in situ on farms such as grasses for mulch, compost and biochar for fertilisation, as well as the active participation of the community through a trans-disciplinary approach, set this project apart

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Partnerships with the private sector will help ensure that technologies are commercially viable and that local market systems will support their availability and adoption long after the end of the project. Collaboration with companies on supply chains and farmer financing will help bring the successful technologies to commercial scale for greater impact. In addition, by connecting change agents across the region – researchers, importers, manufacturers, regional networks, governments and associations – through regional and national innovation hubs, the project will help create a sustainable network. The hubs will support the multi-stage challenge competitions for technology, which include business facilitation, proof of concept and exposure stages.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Partnerships with the private sector will help ensure that technologies are commercially viable and that local market systems will support their availability and adoption long after the end of the project. Collaboration with companies on supply chains and farmer financing will help bring the successful technologies to commercial scale for greater impact. In addition, by connecting change agents across the region – researchers, importers, manufacturers, regional networks, governments and associations – through regional and national innovation hubs, the project will help create a sustainable network. The hubs will support the multi-stage challenge competitions for technology, which include business facilitation, proof of concept and exposure stages.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

With respect to empowerment- e-choupal comes up as fine example. This is example of efficient supply chain system empowering the farmers with timely and relevant information enabling them to get better returns for their produce. And due to its community centric approach, it gives other offerings also to the farmers’ like- insurance and farm management practise, etc.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

With respect to empowerment- e-choupal comes up as fine example. This is example of efficient supply chain system empowering the farmers with timely and relevant information enabling them to get better returns for their produce. And due to its community centric approach, it gives other offerings also to the farmers’ like- insurance and farm management practise, etc.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Farming and Information Technology seems to be the most distantly placed knowledge sets in the world. Farming being the most primitive and most basic of the jobs and IT related being the most advanced and most modern. However we know the importance of farming as it is essential for life maintenance on the surface of mother earth and it is important for the developments in IT to aid for the betterment of farming to produce better.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Farming and Information Technology seems to be the most distantly placed knowledge sets in the world. Farming being the most primitive and most basic of the jobs and IT related being the most advanced and most modern. However we know the importance of farming as it is essential for life maintenance on the surface of mother earth and it is important for the developments in IT to aid for the betterment of farming to produce better.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Farming in India is the center area for sustenance security, dietary security, and supportable advancement and for destitution easing. It contributes approx. 14 % of GDP. Turning points in farming advancement in India incorporates: Green insurgency, Evergreen unrest, Blue transformation, White upheaval, yellow upset, Bio innovation unrest and the latest one is Information and correspondence innovation unrest.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The practise of e-governance, which creates transparency and governance through IT has enabled the citizens. Successful implementation of e-governance in the areas like- maintain land records is a great step in removing the malpractices and creating assurance of rightful ownership. Aadhar is another such tool, which has empowered the masses by confirming their identities and is good example of ICT solution attempting to provide access to monetary benefits by establishing the correct identity and this way rural economy is also expanding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Rural practices and progressions vary internationally—since plants have their own particular contrasts and the area assumes a part on their advancement also. Be that as it may, through the trading of information from various agronomically included people from everywhere throughout the world, change of methods can be experienced too. It has had an effect on how data is shared, and having the capacity to utilize this data for the progression of the horticultural area gives an extraordinary positive effect that is useful for everybody. IT has turned into a scaffold for individuals from everywhere throughout the world.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The practise of e-governance, which creates transparency and governance through IT has enabled the citizens. Successful implementation of e-governance in the areas like- maintain land records is a great step in removing the malpractices and creating assurance of rightful ownership. Aadhar is another such tool, which has empowered the masses by confirming their identities and is good example of ICT solution attempting to provide access to monetary benefits by establishing the correct identity and this way rural economy is also expanding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Farming and Information Technology seems to be the most distantly placed knowledge sets in the world. Farming being the most primitive and most basic of the jobs and IT related being the most advanced and most modern. However we know the importance of farming as it is essential for life maintenance on the surface of mother earth and it is important for the developments in IT to aid for the betterment of farming to produce better.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Rural practices and progressions vary internationally—since plants have their own particular contrasts and the area assumes a part on their advancement also. Be that as it may, through the trading of information from various agronomically included people from everywhere throughout the world, change of methods can be experienced too. It has had an effect on how data is shared, and having the capacity to utilize this data for the progression of the horticultural area gives an extraordinary positive effect that is useful for everybody. IT has turned into a scaffold for individuals from everywhere throughout the world.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

With respect to empowerment- e-choupal comes up as fine example. This is example of efficient supply chain system empowering the farmers with timely and relevant information enabling them to get better returns for their produce. And due to its community centric approach, it gives other offerings also to the farmers’ like- insurance and farm management practise, etc.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

IT underpins new techniques for accuracy agribusiness like modernized ranch apparatus that applies for composts and pesticides. Ranch creatures are sustained and checked by electronic sensors and ID frameworks. Offering or purchasing online started to end up mainstream on the planet. Be that as it may, it's most critical part remains correspondence, and the Internet has furnished us with a perfect chance to do as such.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Farming in India is the center area for sustenance security, dietary security, and supportable advancement and for destitution easing. It contributes approx. 14 % of GDP. Turning points in farming advancement in India incorporates: Green insurgency, Evergreen unrest, Blue transformation, White upheaval, yellow upset, Bio innovation unrest and the latest one is Information and correspondence innovation unrest.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Rural practices and progressions vary internationally—since plants have their own particular contrasts and the area assumes a part on their advancement also. Be that as it may, through the trading of information from various agronomically included people from everywhere throughout the world, change of methods can be experienced too. It has had an effect on how data is shared, and having the capacity to utilize this data for the progression of the horticultural area gives an extraordinary positive effect that is useful for everybody. IT has turned into a scaffold for individuals from everywhere throughout the world.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Despite reductions in extreme poverty in Asia, food insecurity and poverty persist. Millions of smallholder farmers in South and Southeast Asia are trying to improve their livelihoods, build resilience to climate change and adjust to shifting market demand. Adopting new agricultural technologies that make food production and distribution more efficient can assist them to achieve these goals.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The project focuses on knowledge transfer among countries in Asia, by creating challenge competitions to discover the most promising technologies, support partnerships and ultimately bring successful tools and practices to farmers in all stages of the supply chain – from productivity to marketing. Based in Bangkok, Thailand, the project and its partner, Katsetsart University, also strengthen technology networks via a Regional Innovation Hub. The work will continue until 2020 with a focus on Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal and the possibility for expansion to other countries in the region.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Climate change has a significant impact on poor farmers and indigenous people in marginal rural areas. These people often sustain a rich diversity of crop varieties and resilient local land races, which are key for adapting to climate change on both a local and global basis.
The project seeks to strengthen biocultural systems as a whole and recognises the close inter-dependence between traditional knowledge, biodiversity, landscapes, customary laws and cultural and spiritual values. It aims to:

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Climate change has a significant impact on poor farmers and indigenous people in marginal rural areas. These people often sustain a rich diversity of crop varieties and resilient local land races, which are key for adapting to climate change on both a local and global basis.
The project seeks to strengthen biocultural systems as a whole and recognises the close inter-dependence between traditional knowledge, biodiversity, landscapes, customary laws and cultural and spiritual values. It aims to:

Generate new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations — such as traditional crops and related practices — in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with drought and pests) .
It builds on a previous project — Protecting community rights over traditional knowledge: Implications of customary laws and practices  which explored ways to protect collective knowledge systems and developed the concept of biocultural heritage.
Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Develop practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural protocols and participatory plant breeding;

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The initial focus of the partnership will center on the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera), shown above. Virtually every part of this fast-growing and drought-tolerant tree has a use, from the leaves with their extraordinary nutrient content to the young seed pods, which are a delicacy in some countries. But the Saskatoon-based POS team is particularly focused on the oil extracted from the moringa tree’s seeds, echoing back to the company’s early success in helping to develop the canola oil industry which significantly improved the livelihood of farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The initial focus of the partnership will center on the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera), shown above. Virtually every part of this fast-growing and drought-tolerant tree has a use, from the leaves with their extraordinary nutrient content to the young seed pods, which are a delicacy in some countries. But the Saskatoon-based POS team is particularly focused on the oil extracted from the moringa tree’s seeds, echoing back to the company’s early success in helping to develop the canola oil industry which significantly improved the livelihood of farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The initial focus of the partnership will center on the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera), shown above. Virtually every part of this fast-growing and drought-tolerant tree has a use, from the leaves with their extraordinary nutrient content to the young seed pods, which are a delicacy in some countries. But the Saskatoon-based POS team is particularly focused on the oil extracted from the moringa tree’s seeds, echoing back to the company’s early success in helping to develop the canola oil industry which significantly improved the livelihood of farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The initial focus of the partnership will center on the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera), shown above. Virtually every part of this fast-growing and drought-tolerant tree has a use, from the leaves with their extraordinary nutrient content to the young seed pods, which are a delicacy in some countries. But the Saskatoon-based POS team is particularly focused on the oil extracted from the moringa tree’s seeds, echoing back to the company’s early success in helping to develop the canola oil industry which significantly improved the livelihood of farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The initial focus of the partnership will center on the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera), shown above. Virtually every part of this fast-growing and drought-tolerant tree has a use, from the leaves with their extraordinary nutrient content to the young seed pods, which are a delicacy in some countries. But the Saskatoon-based POS team is particularly focused on the oil extracted from the moringa tree’s seeds, echoing back to the company’s early success in helping to develop the canola oil industry which significantly improved the livelihood of farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The initial focus of the partnership will center on the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera), shown above. Virtually every part of this fast-growing and drought-tolerant tree has a use, from the leaves with their extraordinary nutrient content to the young seed pods, which are a delicacy in some countries. But the Saskatoon-based POS team is particularly focused on the oil extracted from the moringa tree’s seeds, echoing back to the company’s early success in helping to develop the canola oil industry which significantly improved the livelihood of farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The initial focus of the partnership will center on the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera), shown above. Virtually every part of this fast-growing and drought-tolerant tree has a use, from the leaves with their extraordinary nutrient content to the young seed pods, which are a delicacy in some countries. But the Saskatoon-based POS team is particularly focused on the oil extracted from the moringa tree’s seeds, echoing back to the company’s early success in helping to develop the canola oil industry which significantly improved the livelihood of farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The initial focus of the partnership will center on the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera), shown above. Virtually every part of this fast-growing and drought-tolerant tree has a use, from the leaves with their extraordinary nutrient content to the young seed pods, which are a delicacy in some countries. But the Saskatoon-based POS team is particularly focused on the oil extracted from the moringa tree’s seeds, echoing back to the company’s early success in helping to develop the canola oil industry which significantly improved the livelihood of farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The post-reform growth was
led by services. Commodity sector growth (agriculture+industry) has not been higher in the postreform
period as compared to that of 1980s. Particular worry is agriculture sector which showed
lower than 2% per annum in the decade of mid-1990s to mid-2000s. There are also concerns on
food security and livelihoods.
Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The post-reform growth was
led by services. Commodity sector growth (agriculture+industry) has not been higher in the postreform
period as compared to that of 1980s. Particular worry is agriculture sector which showed
lower than 2% per annum in the decade of mid-1990s to mid-2000s. There are also concerns on
food security and livelihoods.
Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Conclusion and Recommendations
This study seeks to fill the gap that existed in the literature on gender and leadership behaviors in
community development because women contribution is getting bigger but too often they are not
documented.
Analysis of data showed that leadership understanding and style employed by women leaders is
participatory or collaborative in nature and this is in line with some of the finding from other studies in
women led organization in other countries. It was also found out that the desire to serve the
community, to have better quality of life, religious calling and the need to give back are the main
motives why they became leaders. They also face challenges such as resistance from some members,
lack of funding, balancing role as women and leaders, dwindling interest in participation and because
of these, they have to adopt several strategies such as using collaborative leadership style.
Women leadership relates more to a holistic and “bottom-ups” approach in developing the
community. This approach has a greater success and impact on community development compared to
the “top-down” approach commonly utilized by male community leaders.
To sustain the development of women leaders in community development, the researcher
suggest the following actions:
Women Leadership and Community Development 370
1. Create opportunities for these leaders to document their experience and development as
community leaders. Studies and report that include women telling their stories will raise
awareness of women achievements and contribution to the field.
2. Through documentation and dissemination of information, the women can share the “best
practices” and learn from each other.
3. Cultivate new leaders through training or mentoring
4. Integrate study findings in leadership training program.
5. Organize a dialogue session among women led organizations for sharing knowledge

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The post-reform growth was
led by services. Commodity sector growth (agriculture+industry) has not been higher in the postreform
period as compared to that of 1980s. Particular worry is agriculture sector which showed
lower than 2% per annum in the decade of mid-1990s to mid-2000s. There are also concerns on
food security and livelihoods.
Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

In other words, real development
in terms of growth shared by all sections of the population has not taken place. We have
problems of poverty, unemployment, inequalities in access to health and education and poor
performance of agriculture sector. One of the excluded sector during the reform period was
agriculture which showed low growth and experienced more farmers’ suicides. There are serious
concerns on the performance of agriculture sector in the country. The post-reform growth was
led by services. Commodity sector growth (agriculture+industry) has not been higher in the postreform
period as compared to that of 1980s. Particular worry is agriculture sector which showed
lower than 2% per annum in the decade of mid-1990s to mid-2000s. There are also concerns on
food security and livelihoods.
Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Conclusion and Recommendations
This study seeks to fill the gap that existed in the literature on gender and leadership behaviors in
community development because women contribution is getting bigger but too often they are not
documented.
Analysis of data showed that leadership understanding and style employed by women leaders is
participatory or collaborative in nature and this is in line with some of the finding from other studies in
women led organization in other countries. It was also found out that the desire to serve the
community, to have better quality of life, religious calling and the need to give back are the main
motives why they became leaders. They also face challenges such as resistance from some members,
lack of funding, balancing role as women and leaders, dwindling interest in participation and because
of these, they have to adopt several strategies such as using collaborative leadership style.
Women leadership relates more to a holistic and “bottom-ups” approach in developing the
community. This approach has a greater success and impact on community development compared to
the “top-down” approach commonly utilized by male community leaders.
To sustain the development of women leaders in community development, the researcher
suggest the following actions:
Women Leadership and Community Development 370
1. Create opportunities for these leaders to document their experience and development as
community leaders. Studies and report that include women telling their stories will raise
awareness of women achievements and contribution to the field.
2. Through documentation and dissemination of information, the women can share the “best
practices” and learn from each other.
3. Cultivate new leaders through training or mentoring
4. Integrate study findings in leadership training program.
5. Organize a dialogue session among women led organizations for sharing knowledge

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Conclusion and Recommendations
This study seeks to fill the gap that existed in the literature on gender and leadership behaviors in
community development because women contribution is getting bigger but too often they are not
documented.
Analysis of data showed that leadership understanding and style employed by women leaders is
participatory or collaborative in nature and this is in line with some of the finding from other studies in
women led organization in other countries. It was also found out that the desire to serve the
community, to have better quality of life, religious calling and the need to give back are the main
motives why they became leaders. They also face challenges such as resistance from some members,
lack of funding, balancing role as women and leaders, dwindling interest in participation and because
of these, they have to adopt several strategies such as using collaborative leadership style.
Women leadership relates more to a holistic and “bottom-ups” approach in developing the
community. This approach has a greater success and impact on community development compared to
the “top-down” approach commonly utilized by male community leaders.
To sustain the development of women leaders in community development, the researcher
suggest the following actions:
Women Leadership and Community Development 370
1. Create opportunities for these leaders to document their experience and development as
community leaders. Studies and report that include women telling their stories will raise
awareness of women achievements and contribution to the field.
2. Through documentation and dissemination of information, the women can share the “best
practices” and learn from each other.
3. Cultivate new leaders through training or mentoring
4. Integrate study findings in leadership training program.
5. Organize a dialogue session among women led organizations for sharing knowledge

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

In other words, real development
in terms of growth shared by all sections of the population has not taken place. We have
problems of poverty, unemployment, inequalities in access to health and education and poor
performance of agriculture sector. One of the excluded sector during the reform period was
agriculture which showed low growth and experienced more farmers’ suicides. There are serious
concerns on the performance of agriculture sector in the country. The post-reform growth was
led by services. Commodity sector growth (agriculture+industry) has not been higher in the postreform
period as compared to that of 1980s. Particular worry is agriculture sector which showed
lower than 2% per annum in the decade of mid-1990s to mid-2000s. There are also concerns on
food security and livelihoods.
Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

In other words, real development
in terms of growth shared by all sections of the population has not taken place. We have
problems of poverty, unemployment, inequalities in access to health and education and poor
performance of agriculture sector. One of the excluded sector during the reform period was
agriculture which showed low growth and experienced more farmers’ suicides. There are serious
concerns on the performance of agriculture sector in the country. The post-reform growth was
led by services. Commodity sector growth (agriculture+industry) has not been higher in the postreform
period as compared to that of 1980s. Particular worry is agriculture sector which showed
lower than 2% per annum in the decade of mid-1990s to mid-2000s. There are also concerns on
food security and livelihoods.
Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

In other words, real development
in terms of growth shared by all sections of the population has not taken place. We have
problems of poverty, unemployment, inequalities in access to health and education and poor
performance of agriculture sector. One of the excluded sector during the reform period was
agriculture which showed low growth and experienced more farmers’ suicides. There are serious
concerns on the performance of agriculture sector in the country. The post-reform growth was
led by services. Commodity sector growth (agriculture+industry) has not been higher in the postreform
period as compared to that of 1980s. Particular worry is agriculture sector which showed
lower than 2% per annum in the decade of mid-1990s to mid-2000s. There are also concerns on
food security and livelihoods.
Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

In other words, real development
in terms of growth shared by all sections of the population has not taken place. We have
problems of poverty, unemployment, inequalities in access to health and education and poor
performance of agriculture sector. One of the excluded sector during the reform period was
agriculture which showed low growth and experienced more farmers’ suicides. There are serious
concerns on the performance of agriculture sector in the country. The post-reform growth was
led by services. Commodity sector growth (agriculture+industry) has not been higher in the postreform
period as compared to that of 1980s. Particular worry is agriculture sector which showed
lower than 2% per annum in the decade of mid-1990s to mid-2000s. There are also concerns on
food security and livelihoods.
Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

In other words, real development
in terms of growth shared by all sections of the population has not taken place. We have
problems of poverty, unemployment, inequalities in access to health and education and poor
performance of agriculture sector. One of the excluded sector during the reform period was
agriculture which showed low growth and experienced more farmers’ suicides. There are serious
concerns on the performance of agriculture sector in the country. The post-reform growth was
led by services. Commodity sector growth (agriculture+industry) has not been higher in the postreform
period as compared to that of 1980s. Particular worry is agriculture sector which showed
lower than 2% per annum in the decade of mid-1990s to mid-2000s. There are also concerns on
food security and livelihoods.
Small holdings agriculture which is the focus of this paper is important for raising agriculture
growth, food security and livelihoods in India. It may be noted that Indian agriculture is the
home of small and marginal farmers (80%). Therefore, the future of sustainable agriculture
growth and food security in India depends on the performance of small and marginal farmers.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.

In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.
There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.
According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.
There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, it is a legal point to grant equality to women in the society in all spheres just like male. The Department of Women and Child Development functions well in this field for the proper development of the women and child in India. Women are given a top place in India from the ancient time however they were not given empowerment to participate in all areas. They need to be strong, aware and alert every moment for their growth and development. Empowering women is the main motto of the development department because an empowered mother with child makes the bright future of any nation.
There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar

There are many formulating strategies and initiating processes started by the government of India in order to bring women into the mainstream of development. Women constitute half population of the whole country’s population and need to be independent in every area for the holistic development of women and children.

Photo of Dr. Sukumar Kar